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INTRODUCTION ....... vii 




NOTES TO THE LIFE ...... 57 


INDEX . . . . . . .119 



1 . THE earliest mention of St. David comes from Ireland. 
It occurs in a short treatise, the_ Catalogue of the Saints of 
Ireland, drawn up about A.D. 730. According to this there " 
were "Three Orders" of Irish saints between 432 and 665 ; 
the " Second Order " began and ended in the sixth century, 
and we are told that it received a mode of celebrating mass 
" from holy men of Britain, to wit, from St. David and St. 
Gildas and St. Docus," or, as another version has it, " from 
Bishop David, and Gildas, and Docus, Britons." Thus we 
have early reliable evidence, not only that there was such 
a man as David, but that he was a notable British saint 
and bishop, who with two other religious men of Britain, 
including the celebrated St. Gildas, had agreed upon a 
form of celebrating Holy Communion, which was widely 
received among the foremost saints of Ireland in the sixth 
century. It is therefore more probable than not, that these 
three Britons, David, Gildas, and Docus, were already men 
of renown before the middle of that century. 

From Ireland, too, we have evidence, not quite so early 
but no less reliable, that St. David's chief monastery was 
in Mynyw or Menevia, and that his festival fell on the first 
day of March, for in The Martyrology of Oengus, which is 
now agreed by all scholars to have been compiled about 
the year 800, we find under March ist, Dauid Cille Muni, 
which means " David of the ' monastery ' of Mynyw." 

2 . Other early evidence of St. David comes from outside 
Wales, and is very instructive. It hails from Brittany, and 



occurs in the Life of St. Paul Aurelian, which was written 
in 884. In this we are informed that David was a fellow- 
disciple of Paul, Samson and Gildas, under St. Illtud. 
This is disputable. But we are told as well that St. David 
was surnamed " the Aquatic," which is a way of expressing 
in Latin the Welsh Dyvrwr, "Waterman." He was Dewi 
JDdyvrwr, Dewi the Waterman. We cannot doubt from 
this early testimony that St. David was " the Waterman " 
par excellence^ that is, that he was the head and leader of 
"the Watermen," those stricter monks of Wales, who aimed 
at imitating the austerities of Egypt, and whom St. Gildas 
deemed to be often more abstemious than Christian. Here 
probably we have the true and historic ground for the 
antagonism between St. David and St. Gildas, of which we 
seem to hear rumblings in both Welsh and Irish tradition. 

3. In or about 893 the famous Asser, then Bishop of St. 
Davids, in his Life of Alfred the Great, 79, mentions the 
monastery and parochia of holy Degui, that is, Dewi, as a 
well-known institution, west of the river Severn and north 
of the Severn Sea, with presiding bishops, of whom his 
kinsman, Nobis, who died in 873, was one, and himself 
another. He speaks of the assistance which Dewi, as a 
well-known powerful saint, could render to those who 
trusted in him. 

But perhaps even earlier than this book of Asser are the 
references to St. David in Arymes Prydein Vawr> a poem 
of some two hundred lines in the Book of Taliesin, which 
predict the expulsion of the Saxons from Britain. I can 
find nothing in this vigorous composition to disprove Ifor 
Williams' contention 1 that it was written towards the close 
of the ninth century, or, at latest, at the beginning of .the 
tenth. On the contrary, I should be tempted to date it 
before Alfred's friendship with Asser, which began about 
884, and to believe that the two lines 
1 Y Beirniad, 1916, p. 212. 


EJ- talhawr o anaiur Garmawn garant 

Yfedeir blyned ar pcdwar cant 

There will be paid with the help of the kinsmen of Germanus 
The four hundred and four years 

refer to the four hundred and four years of " Saxon oppres- 
sion," counting from some point in the mid-fifth century, 
which would fix the writing of this predictive work in the 
mid-ninth century. But whether 850 or 900 is its more 
approximate date, the poem cannot be dissociated from 
the traditions and the notions embodied in the History 
of the Britons of the previous century, where (ch. xlii.) 
we find it foretold that " our nation shall rise and valiantly 
drive away the nation of the English across the sea." By 
the " Cymry " the poet clearly means the people of Wales, 
whom he differentiates from Cornishmen, Clydesmen, and 
Bretons. These three together with the Irish and the 
Scandinavians of Dublin [this fixes the date of the poem 
after about 840], will join the Cymry to oust the Saxons 
out of Britain. Their military leaders will be Cadwaladr 
and Cynan, who historically were princes of North and 
Mid Wales respectively, and their ecclesiastical champion 
will be St. David, who of course historically was a saint 
of the south. Under these all Wales will move. The only 
other saint named is Germanus, which makes me think 
that this poem, like the History of the ^Britons mentioned 
above, originated in the little joint-kingdom of Gwrtheyrnion 
and Buellt, which was ruled by its own line of kings, who 
traced their origin from Vortigern. Gwrtheyrnion is from 
" Vortigerniana," the land of Vortigern, and lies between 
the Wye and the leithonin modern Radnorshire. One of its 
saints was Germanus, at St. Harmons, where doubtless in the 
poet's time the supremacy of Dewi and Mynyw was already 
established, being as it is to-day (1922) within what Asser 
would call parochia Degut\ the "diocese" of Dewi. In the 
poem St. David is mentioned five times as follows : ( i ) the 


Cymry yd Duw a Dewiydymorchymynynt^ to God and Dewi 
commended themselves ; (2) there will be a flight of the 
Saxon aliens trwy eiryawl Dewi a seint Prydeyn^ through 
the intercession of Dewi and the saints of Britain; (3) a 
Human glan Dewi a, drychafant^ and Dewi's holy banner 
will (the Cymry) raise; (4) with their Irish confederates 
and Gynkon Dulyn, the Scandinavians of Dublin, the 
Cymry will put many taunting questions to the Saxons, 
including neu reitheu Dewi pyr y torrassant, why have they 
broken the laws of Dewi? and (5) poet tywyssawc Dewi yr 
kynifwyr, may Dewi be a leader to the combatants. 

4. In the old Latin Welsh Chronicle, written in 954, 
there appears at [60 1] this entry, "Dauid episcopus moni 
iudeoruw," which has never been satisfactorily explained. 
It probably refers to Dewi's death. If so, like that of 
St. Dubricius at [612], it is doubtless considerably post- 
dated. This Chronicle, if we may judge from the frequent 
allusions in it to St. Davids and its bishops, was probably 
written at St. Davids itself. 

5. About the year 1090 Rhygyvarch, son of Bishop 
Sulien of St. Davids, undertook to write the Life of St. 
David. He tells us that in his day there existed some 
"very old writings" about the saint, especially at St. 
Davids, in the monastery there, written "in the old style 
of the ancients." He declares that in his Life of St. 
David he is drawing from these written sources. Of oral 
tradition he says nothing, except as to miracles done by 
the saint after his death, which Rhygyvarch will not 
trouble to recount. What Rhygyvarch will have to say 
will be drawn from written sources. They are so old that 
they would perish, did he not undertake to rescue some 
of them. Yet he has culled but a few out of many. He 
particularly mentions the survival of writings in St. David's 
own hand. In all this Rhygyvarch reveals the instinct of 
a historian, and on his work practically all our knowledge 
of the career of the saint rests. 



1. The best copy of Rhygyvarch's Life of St. David, 
being* the fullest, and, as far as I know, quite unique, is 
that now contained in the Cottonian Codex, marked 
Vespasian A xiv, at the British Museum, London. It 
appears to have been transcribed about A.D. 1200, a 
century after Rhygyvarch's death. It is certainly not an 
exact copy. There are at least some slight omissions and 
alterations, to say nothing of possible scribal mistakes. In 
1853 it was printed in full for the first time by the Rev. 
W. J. Rees, Rector of Cascob, Radnorshire, in his Lives 
of the Cambro-British Saints (117144), together with an 
English translation (418-438), a most unsatisfactory per- 
formance, teeming with blunders. More than half a 
century was allowed to elapse before a second attempt 
was made to provide the public with a more accurate 
printed text. This appeared in 1913, the present writer 
being responsible, in vol. xxiv. of Y Cymmrodor, 428, 
the Magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 
London. The text there presented 1 is the result of my 
own private collation of Rees' text with the original in 
the British Museum. In order to facilitate reference I 
ventured to divide the Life, with its important epilogue, 
etc., into sections. A new English translation was pro- 
vided, which has been thoroughly revised for this 
present book. The annotations, too, are here corrected, 
revised, and added to. 

2. There are many anonymous " Norman-French " recen- 
sions of Rhygyvarch's -original work, some as old, if not 
older, than the Cottonian MS. just mentioned. The earliest 
of these are said to be, London, B. M., Cott. Nero i ; 
Oxford, Bodleian, Digby 112; and Cambridge, Corpus 
Christi College, 161. These three were written by about 

1 It should be now supplemented with the following corrigenda : 
p. 9, 1. 19, operam ; 10, 1. 14, accepit. Pepiau quo[que] ; 10, 1. 16, 
Maitrun; 15, 1. 5, fratrum/0r firmam. 


1 200. Of the thirteenth century are said to be Bodleian, 
793 ; Bodleian, Rawlinson B. 485 (of which Rawlinson B. 
505, a century later, is a direct copy ; this is what may be 
called an " Irish " recension, a copy of which is printed in 
Colgan's A.S.H., 1645, * 4 2 5~9) \ Bodleian, 285 ; and 
Cambridge University Library, Ff. i, 27, 28 (from Bury 
St. Edmunds, about 1300). The Bodleian 336 was written 
early in the fourteenth century in England; it was never 
completed and ends with 19. There is an old recension 
printed in the Acta Sanctorum^ March i, i. 41. This, used 
by the Bollandists, belonged to the Church of St. Saviour, 
at Utrecht, having been originally brought from Britain. 
With the exception of the last and that in Colgan, I am not 
aware that any of these recensions has been printed ; and 
certainly, all these anonymous recensions, and others which 
are said to exist, have never been collated. 

3. The Life of St. David by Giraldus Cambrensis 
(c. 1147 . I22 3) is either a recension of the original 
work of Rhygyvarch, or of some early recension of it. 
Mr. Egerton Phillimore tells me that it exists in two 
MSS., the older of these being the Cottonian Vitellius, 
E. vii., of the early thirteenth century, which was partly 
destroyed in the fire at Ashburnham House, October 1731. 
Six folios of the Life remain (4-9), beginning with the 
words "aquas spargens" (Gerald, iii. 385, last line). 
From this MS. Wharton printed his edition in Anglia 
Sacra, ii. 628 ff., of which Brewer's text (Gerald, iii. 
377404), is a mere reprint with a few collations from 
fragments quoted by Ussher and from the older Lives 
($., xlii.-iii.). The other MS. is in the British Museum, 
Royal, 13. C. i., folios 171-180. It is the only complete 
copy now known to exist. " It contains (says Phillimore) an 
appendix of Miracula s. Davidis (many of them performed 
in England), unknown to exist elsewhere; and these are 
followed by Lectiones de Sancta Nonnita, which break 


off imperfect with folio 180, and are virtually extracted 
from some Life of St. David. This MS. is ascribed by 
Hardy to the seventeenth century. It does not seem to 
be a copy of Vitellius E. vii., for some of the place-names 
on folio 1730 are spelt in a more archaic form than in 
the corresponding passage (folio 40) of the other MS." 
Until these two MSS. are thoroughly examined, collated, 
and then compared with our i and 2, it is not safe to 
say what original Gerald had before him, or how far he 
is responsible for the various identifications of persons and 
localities, which distinguish his recension. But it may 
be stated with some confidence, that much of what is 
generally thought and said nowadays of St. David emanates 
from Gerald's interpretation of Rhygyvarch rather than 
from Rhygyvarch himself ; which is unfortunate. 

4. The Life of St. David by John of Tynemouth (c. 1290- 
1350) is a recension of our i. It appears in the Cottonian 
Tiberius E. i. ff. 48^-5 1, a MS. of the fourteenth century, 

damaged by the 1731 fire, and reproduced "with slight 
variations" in John of Tynemouth's Historia aurta in 
MSS. Lambeth 10-12, late fourteenth century. A copy 
of it is in the Bodleian, Tanner 15 (written in 1499). It 
is printed in Horstman's Nova Legenda Anglie, Oxford, 
1901, i. 254262. 

5. The Welsh Life of St. David is first found in the 
Oxford, Jesus Coll., MS. 2, written in 1346 by the then 
anchorite of Llanddewi Vrevi, Cardiganshire. It is printed 
by Morris Jones and Rhys in the Elucidarium^ Oxford, 
1894, pp. 105-1 18. It also occurs in the Llanstephan MSS. 4 
and 27, both of about 1400; the B.M. Cott. Titus D. xxii., 
ff. 138-155^, written in 1429 and printed inaccurately in 
Rees' Lives of the Cambro-British Saints, 102-116; and 
in the Peniarth MSS. 15 and 27 (part ii.), both of the 
fifteenth century. The Welsh Life is an abridgment of 
the work of Rhygyvarch, but whether translated directly 


from the original or from some recension of it, is yet to be 

In addition to the above there are extant some Welsh 
poems, especially one entitled Canuy Dewi, lit. " singing to 
Dewi," written by Gwynvardd Brycheiniog, a contemporary 
of Rhys ab Gruffudd, king of Deheubarth or the "south 
part" of Wales. Gwynvardd's years are conventionally 
given as from 1160 to 1220. The poem is printed in 
Anwyl's Poetry of the Gogynfeirdd (from the Myvyrian 
Archaiology of Wales), 1909, pp. 82-84, where it is given 
as consisting of some 295 lines. By the change of rhyme 
it would appear that this composition comprises ten odes, 
stanzas, or sections, all in the same metre. The metrical 
unity is maintained, partly at least, by the stanza link, either 
by word repetition or consonantal harmony. A few lines 
are irregular in length. Though obscure and probably 
corrupt in parts, the general meaning of this strange pro- 
duction is quite clear, but no full translation as yet could 
be more than tentative. Notwithstanding the very generous 
help given me by the Welsh Professors, Ifor Williams and 
T. Gwyn Jones, in the translation and elucidation of this 
composition, I refrain from giving more than a few extracts 
from it. The poem embodies material not found in any 
of the Lives of St. David as at present known. 


i. For the age in which he lived Rhygyvarch was in the 
best possible position to compile a Life of St. David. He 
was born in 1057, and died in 1099 at the premature age 
of forty-two years. He belonged to a family renowned for 
its learning, his father being Sulien the Wise, twice bishop 
of St. Davids, who long before his elevation to this high 
office had acquired much fame as a teacher. This Sulien 
was a native of Llanbadarn Vawr, a district which included 


Aberystwyth; he was born of noble and clerical stock. 
While yet a child, he "edited a psalter," after which he 
passed through British (that is, Welsh) schools. Then, 
" moved by the example of the fathers " and " by the love 
of reading," he started out for Ireland, which was still 
famous for its scholarship. But the ship, driven by contrary 
winds, arrived in Scotland, where he studied for five years. 
After this he went to Ireland, where he remained for 
apparently thirteen years. He then came back to Ceredigion, 
and gained much fame as a teacher. Four sons were now 
born to him, whom he carefully educated Rhygyvarch the 
Wise, Arthen, Daniel, and leuan; it wa,s the latter who 
wrote the poem which gives us these interesting particulars. 1 
Some time later Sulien was called to become Bishop of Vallis 
Rosina (that is, St. Davids), where he presided between 
1072 and 1078, and again (after the murder by Scandinavian 
pirates of Bishop Abraham, who succeeded him), between 
1080 and 1085. He died January i, 1091, "the wisest of 
the Britons, and excellent for his religious life, after the most 
renowned teaching of his disciples, and the most skilful in- 
struction of the congregations" (so says the Welsh Chronicle). 

Several relics remain of the work of this family, such as 
the Life of St. David by Rhygyvarch ; the Psalter of 
Rhygyvarch, written about 1079, f which Lawlor published 
an edition for the Henry Bradshaw Society in 1914; and 
a copy of St. Augustine's De Trinitate in Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, MS. 199, written by leuan, son of 
Sulien, between 1085 and 1091. In the British Museum 
Cotton MS., Faustina C. i., too, is the poem called the 
" Lament of Rhygyvarch," written apparently just before the 
Welsh revolt of 1094, and some verses of Rhygyvarch, which 
Bradshaw and Lawlor think are written by his own hand. 

The fortunes of this learned family may be traced in the 
chronicles well into the twelfth century. 

1 Haddan and Stubbs' Councils, i. 663 ff. 


2. Rhygyvarch's life coincides with the end of an epoch 
in Welsh history, that of the " Ancient British Church of 
Wales." He saw with grief the coming of the Norman 
French, the permanent subjugation of large tracts of South 
Wales, and the approaching mergence of the Welsh Church 
into the province of Canterbury, which mergence was not 
to cease for some eight centuries, not indeed until the 
happy midnight of March 31, 1920. 

When Rhygyvarch was born in 1057, the whole of Wales 
was temporally under the rule of one strong man, Gruffudd 
ab Llywelyn. This had continued for two years, and was 
not to end for another five. After the death of King 
GrufFudd on August 5, 1063, the various portions of Wales, 
such as Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth, Morgannwg, and 
some smaller districts, fell as before under the rule of 
separate princes; and such was the political situation in 
Wales when Duke William of Normandy won the battle of 
Hastings in 1066, our Rhygyvarch being then nine years 
old and probably living at Llanbadarn Vawr, a scholar under 
his father's roof. 

The presence of the new French regime in England was 
immediately felt throughout Wales; for the remainder of 
Rhygyvarch's life it was the chief factor in Welsh history. 
Henceforth the whole country with its Church became the 
object of French aggression. As the Anglo-Saxons had 
been crushed to the ground, so the Britons were to be 
brought under. But this was easier said than done. Nor 
did the French through many compromises and after much 
intermarriage effect supremacy for more than two centuries. 
Yet before Rhygyvarch died, most of South Wales was to 
fall permanently under their sway. By 1070 the ancient 
principality of Gwent, the land between the Wye and the 
Usk, had fallen. In 1081, as the result of the battle of 
Mynydd Carn, near Fishguard, 1 the Welsh dynasties that 
1 i. t. if the Cam'vsy Gam FazwinDinas (YC. } xxii. 57-8) 


were to rule in south, north, and mid-Wales respec- 
tively, secured their positions, but that same year William 
the Conqueror paid an ominous visit to St. Davids, where 
doubtless Rhygyvarch saw him. Later we find Rhys ab 
Tewdwr, the king of " the south," paying 40 rent to the 
English Crown, which is the same sum as was paid by 
the man who held the north. In 1093 Rhys ab Tewdwr 
was killed whilst fighting the French conquerors of Brychei- 
niog, or " Brecon," after which the Welsh were in confusion, 
whilst the invader swept the country. Doubtless this was 
the occasion when Rhygyvarch wrote his pathetic " Lament." 
" Alas ! " says he, " that life hath led us to such a time as 
this, wherein a cruel power threatens to oust from their 
rights those who walk justly. Free necks submit to the 
yoke. Nothing is too excellent but that I may be com- 
pelled to surrender it. Things once lofty lie despised. 
Both people and priest are scorned by every motion of the 
French. They increase our burdens and consume our 
goods. Parents no longer delight in their children. The 
youth no more delight in jests, nor pay they any heed to 
the poet's verse. A stupor has fallen upon the people. 
Righteous hands are branded with hot iron. Both women 
and men are mutilated. Prison and slavery are our lot, 
with lack of ease. Surely, it is because of our sins. So 
great are these, that our people refrain from taking up 
arms. Art thou hated of God, O British nation, that thou 
darest not bear the quiver, stretch the bow, wear the sword, 
carry the shield, vibrate the spear ? Alas ! an alien crowd 
make songs at thee. What remains but to weep, yea, to 
weep excessively. Such things I, Rhygyvarch, sorrowfully 
bewail. I mourn the sins of a wretched race. I depict the 
punishments of their crimes." Rhygyvarch had not long to 
wait. In 1094 all Wales began to rise against the oppressor ; 
and by the time that Rhygyvarch died a settlement had 
been reached which was to continue for some two centuries. 


Such were the circumstances amid which the Life of St. 
David was written, and such was the man who wrote it. 
He stood for the independent traditions of his Church and 
country against alien lack of sympathy and violence. With 
the death of Rhys ab Tewdwr in 1093, Canterbury in the 
person of Anselm, who became archbishop that year, began 
to interfere with the liberties of St. Davids. Anselm had 
actually taken upon him to suspend Wilfrid, the then 
bishop. We cannot but regard the Life of St. David as a 
protest against such high-handed proceedings. Though it 
proved futile for the immediate object in view, that is to 
say, to preserve the independence of the Church in Wales 
and to establish a metropolitan position for St. Davids, it 
has served to keep alive the remembrance that Canterbury 
is not the rock from which the Welsh Church was hewn 
or the hole of the pit from which she was digged. 


A.L. Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, ed. by A. Owen, 2 vols., 

Arch. Camb. Archceologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association. 

B.B. St. D. The Black Book of St. David's, ed. by J. W. Willis- 
Bund, 1902. 

B.LL The Text of the Book of Llan Ddv, reproduced by J. G. Evans, 


B. y S. Boneddy Saint, "the descent of the saints," compiled in the 
twelfth century. The four earliest copies of it now known are 
found (a) in Peniarth MS. 16 (early thirteenth century), printed 
in L.B.S., iv. 369-71 ; (b) in Peniarth MS. 45 (late thirteenth 
century), printed in L.B.S., iv. 371-3 ; (c) in Peniarth MS. 12 
(early fourteenth century), printed in Y C., vii. 133-4; and (d) 
Hafod MS. 16 (c. 1400), printed in Myvyrian Archaiology (ed. 
1801), ii. 23-5. 

Bede. Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. by C. Plummer, Oxford, 1896. 

Browne Willis. A Survey of the Cathedral Church of St. David's, 
London, 1717. 

Bury. The Life of St. Patrick, by J. B. Bury, 1905. 

C.B.S. Lives of the Cambro- British Saints, by W. J. Rees, 1853. 
For more accurate texts of the Lives of St. Carannpg (J. T. Evans' 
Church Plate of Cardiganshire, 133-6) J of the Life of St. David 
(YC., xxiv. 4-28); of the Life of St. Aeddan (V.S.H., ii. 295- 
311); of the Welsh Life of St. Catherine and the Life of St. 
Tathens (by Idris Bell, Bangor, 1909) ; of D.S. B. and P.K. ( Y C. , 
xix., 24-27). 

C.C.C.C. 161. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 161. 

C.M. Chronica Minora, iii., ed. by T. Mommsen, 1894. 

D. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Digby MS. 112. 

D.S.B. Desitu Brecheniatic ( Y C., xix. 24-27). 

Fenton. A Historical Tour through Pembrokeshire, by Richard Fenton 
(1903 ed.). 

Geoffrey of Monmouth. fftstorta Regum Brttanniae, ed. San-Marte, 

Gerald. Giraldi Cambrensis Opera. Rolls series, 1861-91. The De 
Invectionibus is printed from the Vatican MS. by W. S. Davies 
(Y C., xxx.). 

H.B. Historia Brittonum, with additaments by Nennius (C.M., 



H.E. SeeBede. 

H.R.B. See Geoffrey of Monmouth. 

J.F. See Jones and Freeman. 

Jones and Freeman. The History and Antiquities of Saint David's, 

L. Book of Lismore, ed. with trs. by Whiteley Stokes, Oxford, 1890 ; 

dates from 1450-1500, and compiled from the lost Book of Mon- 

asterboice and other MSS. ; a collection of Lives of Saints in Irish. 
L.B.S. The Lives of the British Saints, by S. Baring-Gould and J. 

Fisher, 4 vols., 1907-13. 
Leland. The Itinerary in Wales, extracted, etc., by Toulmin Smith, 


Lloyd. A History of Wales, 2 vols., by J. E. Lloyd, 1911. 
M. A codex in Primate Marsh's Library, Dublin, marked V. 3. 4 

(c. 1400). It is Colgan's Codex Kilkenniensis and Fleming's 

Codex Ardmachamis. 

N. London, British Museum, Cottonian Collection, Nero E. I. 
N.L.A. Nova Legenda Anglie, ed. by C. Horstman, Oxford, 1901. 
O's P. The Description of Pembrokeshire, by George Owen, ed. by 

Henry Owen, 1892-1906. This work contains numerous most 

valuable notes by Mr. Egerton Phillimore, who has kindly allowed 

me to see several pages of the as yet unpublished Part IV. For 

this and other friendly help from Mr. Phillimore I am deeply 


P. K. Progenies Keredic (Y C., xix., 27). 
S. Acta Sanctorum Hibernias, ed. by De Smedtand De Backer, 1888. 

A collection of Lives of Irish Saints in Latin, from a MS. at the 

Royal Library, Brussels, numbered 7672-4, commonly known as 

Codex Salmanticensis, as it once belonged to the Irish College at 

Salamanca ; fourteenth century. 
Survey. See Browne Willis. 
T. A codex in Trinity Coll., Dublin, E. 3." u, numbered 175 in 

Abbott's Catalogue ; c. 1400. 

T.D. W. A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, by S. Lewis, 1833. 
Trs. C.S. The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. 
V. London, British Museum, Cottonian Collection, Vespasian A. xiv. 

(c. 1200). 

V.S.H. Vitas Sanctorum Hibernia, by Charles Plummer, 1910. 
W.M.L. Welsh Medieval Law, by A. W. Wade-Evans, Oxford, 1909. 
Welsh Life. Hysteria o Uuched Dewi (see Introduction xiii). 
Williams. Christianity in Early Britain, by Hugh Williams, Oxford, 

Williams' Gildas. Cymmrodorion Record Series, No. 3, London, 

Y C. YCymmrodor, the Magazine of the Hon. Soc. of Cymmrodorion, 

Y G. The Poetry of the Gogynfeirdd, etc. , by E. Anwyl, Denbigh, 



Here begins the Life of the blessed David, who also is 
i^ Bishop and Confessor. March isf. 

i. OUR LORD, although he loved and foreknew all his 
own before the creation of the world, has foretold some by 
many clear revelations. Thus that saint, whom baptism 
calls David but the people Dewi, became famous, not only 
because, thirty years before he was bom, he was foretold 
by truth-telling oracles of angels, first to his father, then 
to Saint Patrick, but also because he was enriched with 
donations of mystical gifts. 

2. For on a certain occasion, his father, Sant by name 
and merits, who relied on his royal power over the people 
of Ceredigion, which subsequently he laid aside to procure 
a heavenly kingdom, was warned in dreams by an angelic 
voice, which he heard, "To-morrow on waking thou shalt 
go hunting, and having killed a stag near a river, thou shalt 
find there three gifts by the river Teivi, namely, the stag 
which thou pursuest, a fish, and a swarm of bees settled in 
a tree in the place which is called Llyn Henllan. Of these 
three, therefore, reserve a honeycomb, a part of the fish, 
and of the stag, which send to be kept for a son, who shall 
be born to thee, to the Monastery of Mattcannus" which 
till now is called the Monastery of the Deposit. These 
gifts foretell his life, for the honeycomb proclaims his 
wisdom, for as honey in wax, so he held a spiritual mind 
in a temporal body. And the fish declares his aquatic life, 


for as a fish lives in water, so he, rejecting wine and beer 
and everything that can intoxicate, led a blessed life in God 
on bread and water only, wherefore David is also named 
" of the Aquatic Life." The stag signifies his power over 
the Old Serpent, for as a stag, having deprived serpents of 
their food, seeks a fountain of water and is refreshed as in 
youth with the strength received, so he, borne on high as 
on stags' feet, deprived the Old Serpent of the human race 
of his power of hurting him and fled to the fountain of life 
with constant Sowings of tears, and, being renewed from 
day to day, so brought it to pass that in the name of the 
Holy Trinity, by the frugality of moderate repasts, he began 
to have saving knowledge [and] the power of governing 


3. Then Patrick, polished with Roman learning and 

teeming with excellences, having been made a bishop, 
sought the people from whom he had lived in exile, among 
whom he might by unwearied toil replenish the lamp of 
fruitful endeavour by a double portion of the oil of charity, 
unwilling to place the same under a bushel, but on a stand 
that it might shine on all to the glory of the universal 
Father. He came to the country of the people of Ceredigion, 
wherein he sojourned a little while. He enters Demetica 
rura, the country of Dyved, and there wandering about 
arrived at length at the place which was named Vallis 
Rosina; and perceiving that the place was pleasant, he 
vowed to serve God faithfully there. But when he was 
revolving these things in his mind, an angel of the Lord 
appeared to him. " God," said he, " hath not disposed this 
place for thee, but for a son who is not yet born, nor will 
he be born until thirty years are past." On hearing these 
words Saint Patrick grieved and was confounded, and in 
anger he exclaimed, "Why hath the Lord despised his 
servant who has served him from his infancy with fear and 
love ? Why hath he chosen another not yet born into this 


light nor will be born for thirty years ? " And he prepared 
to fly, and to abandon his Lord, Jesus Christ, saying, " In- 
asmuch as my labour is reduced to nothing in the sight of 
my Lord, and one is preferred before me, who is not yet 
born, I will go and submit no longer to such toil." But 
the Lord loved Patrick much, and sent to him his angel to 
coax him with kindly words, saying to him, "Rejoice, 
Patrick, for the Lord hath sent me to thee that I may show 
thee the whole of the island of Ireland from the seat which 
is in Vallis Rosina" which now is named "the Seat of 
Patrick." And the angel says to him, " Exult, Patrick, for 
thou shalt be the apostle of the whole of that island which 
thou seest, and thou shalt suffer many things in it for the 
name of the Lord thy God, but the Lord will be with thee 
in all things which thou shalt do, for as yet it has not 
received the word of life; and there thou oughtest to do 
good ; there the Lord has prepared a seat for thee ; there 
thou shalt shine in signs and miracles, and thou shalt 
subdue the whole people to God. Let this be to thee for a 
sign. I will show thee the whole island. Let the mountains 
be bent ; the sea shall be made smooth ; the eye bearing 
forth across all things, looking out from [this] place, shall 
behold the promise." At these words he raised his eyes 
from the place in which he was standing, which now is 
called " the Seat of Patrick," and beheld the whole island. 
At length the mind of Patrick was appeased, and he cheer- 
fully quitted the sacred spot for holy David ; and preparing 
a ship in Porth Mawr, he raised from the dead a certain 
old man, Criumther by name, who for twelve years had 
lain buried by that shore; and Patrick sailed for Ireland, 
taking with him the man he had just raised from the dead, 
who afterwards was made a bishop. 

4. When the aforesaid thirty years were done, divine 
power sent Sant, king of the country of Ceredigion, as far 
as a community of the people of Dyved. And the king 


met a nun, a virgin called Nonnita, a very beautiful and 
graceful girl, whom desiring he took by force and violated. 
And she conceived her son, holy David, who neither before 
nor after knew a man, but, continuing in chastity of mind 
and body, led a most faithful life, for from that time of 
conception she lived on bread and water only. In the 
place wherein she conceived on being forced, there lies a 
small level space, pleasing to the sight, and well supplied 
with moisture from above. On this level space at that 
time of her conception two great stones appeared, one for 
the head and the other for the feet, which had not formerly 
been seen. For the earth, rejoicing at her conception, 
opened its breast that it might both preserve the modesty 
of the girl and foretell the importance of her offspring. 

5. As her womb was growing, the mother, for the purpose 
of offering alms and oblations for childbirth according to 
correct custom, enters a certain church to hear the preaching 
of the Gospel, which Saint Gildas, son of Caw, used to 
preach in the time of King Triphunus and his sons. When 
the mother had entered, Gildas became suddenly dumb, as 
if his throat were closed, and was silent. When asked by 
the people why he had stopped preaching and was mute, 
he replied, "I am able to speak to you in ordinary con- 
versation, but preach I cannot. But go you out, and cause 
me to abide alone that so perhaps I may be able to preach." 
When, therefore, the congregation had gone outside, the 
mother secreted herself in a corner and lay hid, not that 
she would disobey the order, but thirsting with vehement 
desire for the precepts of life she remained to demonstrate 
the status of her mighty offspring. Then even a second 
time, trying with all the effort of his heart, restrained from 
heaven he prevailed nothing. Being frightened at this he 
speaks out in a high voice. "I adjure thee," says he, "if 
any one lies hid from me, that thou shouldest show thyself 
from thy hiding-place." Then she answering said, "I lie 


hid here between the door and the wall." But he relying 
on divine providence said, "Go thou outside, but let the 
people re-enter the church." And every one came into his 
seat as before, and Gildas preached clearly as from a 
trumpet. And the congregation asked holy Gildas saying, 
" Why couldest thou not the first time preach the Gospel 
of Christ to us, anxious to listen ? " And Gildas answered 
and said, "Call hither the nun, who went outside the 
church." And when the mother was questioned, she con- 
fessed that she was pregnant, and Saint Nonnita said, " Lo. 
I am with you." But he said, "The son, who is in the 
womb of that nun, has grace and power and rank greater 
than I, because God has given him status and sole rule and 
primacy over all the saints of Britannia for ever, before and 
after judgment. Farewell, brothers and sisters. I am not 
able to abide here longer owing to the son of this nun, 
because to him is delivered sole rule over all the people of 
this .island, and it is necessary for me to go to another 
island, and to leave the whole of Britannia to this woman's 
son." One thing was clearly manifest to all, that she was 
about to bring forth into the world one who in honourable 
status, effulgent wisdom, and eloquent speech would excel 
all the doctors of Britannia. 

6. In the meantime there was a certain tyrant in the 
neighbourhood, who had heard from a prophecy of the 
druids, that a son was about to be born within his borders, 
whose power would fill the whole country. He, who, intent 
on earthly things only, deemed his highest good to consist 
in these lowest, was tortured with black envy. And so the 
place, where subsequently the son was born, being made 
known by the revelations of the druids, he said, "Alone 
will I sit above the spot for so many days, and whomsoever I 
shall find resting there or thereabouts shall fall and die by 
my sword." These things being so determined upon, and 
the nine months having elapsed whereby the time of birth 


was at hand, the mother on a day went forth along that 
path where the place of child-bearing was, which the tyrant 
was watching in accordance with the druids' prognostic. 
And as the time for bringing forth was urgent, the mother 
sought the aforesaid spot. But on that day there prevailed 
such a storm of wind that none could even go out of doors, 
for there was a vast display of lightning, a dreadful clangour 
of thunder, and great floods caused by hailstorms and rain. 
But the place, wherein the mother cried in her travail, 
shone with so serene a light that it glistened as though the 
sun was visible and God had brought it in front of the 
clouds. The mother in her labour had a certain stone 
close by, whereon, when urged by pain, she had leaned 
with her hands, for which reason the stone shows to those 
who examine it traces impressed as on wax. Dividing in 
the middle, it condoled with the sorrowing mother, one 
part leaping above the nun's head as far as her feet, when 
the child-bearer was bringing forth. In this place a church 
is situated, and in the foundation of its altar this stone lies 

7. Again, when he was baptized by Aelvyw, bishop of 
the people of Mynyw (or of the people of Munster), a 
fountain of clearest water, bursting forth, suddenly appeared 
in that place for the administration of baptism, which had 
never been seen before. Moreover, it cured the eyes of a 
blind monk, who held him while he was baptized ; for that 
blind saint, who, so it is said, had been born from his 
mother's womb without nostril and without eyes, perceiving 
that the infant, which he held in his bosom, was full of the 
grace of the Holy Ghost, took the water, wherein the body 
of the holy infant had been thrice dipped, and sprinkled 
his own face with it three times, and, sooner than said, he 
joyfully received the sight of his eyes and the full comple- 
tion of his countenance. And all who were present glorified 
the Lord and holy David on that day. 


8. The place where holy David was educated is called 
Vetus Rubus, Hen Vynyw; and he grew up full of grace, 
and lovely to behold. And there it was that holy David 
learned the alphabet, the psalms, the lessons for the whole 
year, the masses, and the synaxis; and there his fellow- 
disciples saw a pigeon with a gold beak playing at his lips, 
and teaching him, and singing hymns of God. 

9. But it was at a subsequent time, when his virtuous 
merits had increased, he having preserved his flesh pure 
from the embraces of a wife, that he was made priest and 
raised to sacerdotal dignity. 

10. After this he went to Paulens (or Paulinus)the scribe, 
a disciple of St. Germanus the bishop/ who in a certain 
island was leading a life pleasing to God, and who taught 
him in the three parts of reading until he was a scribe. 
And Saint David tarried there many years reading and 
fulfilling what he read. 

ii. And it happened while the holy David was with the 
master, Paulens, that the latter lost the sight of his eyes by 
reason of an intense pain in them. And he summoned all 
his disciples in succession that they might look into his eyes 
and bless them, and they did as he had commanded them, 
and received relief from none of them. At last he invited 
the holy David to him, and said to him, "Holy David, 
examine my eyes, for they pain me much." And the holy 
David answered and said, " My father, bid me not to look 
on thy countenance, for these ten years I have laboured at 
scripture with thee, and so far I have not glanced at thy 
face." And Paulens, admiring his excessive modesty, says, 
" As it is so, it will suffice that thou bless my eyes with a 
touch and I shall be well." And straightway, as he touched 
them, they were healed in the twinkling of an eye; and 
when the blindness of his eyes -had been expelled, the 
master received the light which had been removed. Then 
thanks are rendered to God; and Paulens (or Paulinus) 


blessed holy David with all the blessings which are written 
in the Old Testament and in the New. 

12. Not long after an angel appeared to Paulens. " It is 
time " (said he) " that holy David should double his talents 
by merchandize, and consign the talent of wisdom entrusted 
to him not to the earth, digging indolently with the slow 
languor of sloth, but augment the money which he has 
received of his Lord, with a larger increment of gain, so that 
he, appointed thereto, might, by amassing bundles of souls 
for the heavenly barns of eternal blessedness, bring them 
into the joy of the Lord." For from what numbers, after 
ploughing with the nail of exhortation and sowing with the 
seed of wheat, did he obtain the fruit of good harvest, 
of some indeed a hundred-fold, of others sixty-fold, of others 
thirty-fold ! For not ploughing equally, with much force in 
the case of an ox and with less in the case of an ass, 
administering the strong meat of life to some and the milk 
of pious exhortation to others, confining some within the 
barriers of a monastic cloister and weaning others, who 
followed a broader life and whom he exhorted with divers 
instructions, from the deceitful lusts of worldly pleasures, 
he became all things to all men. 

13. For he founded twelve monasteries to the praise of 
God : first, arriving at Glastonbury, he built a church there ; 
then he came to Bath, and there causing deadly water to 
become salutary with a blessing, he endowed it with per- 
petual heat, rendering it fit for people to bathe; after- 
wards he came to Croyland, and Repton ; thence to Colva, 
and Glascwm, and he had with him a two-headed altar; 
after that he founded the monastery of Leominster ; after- 
wards in the region of Gwent, in a place which is called 
Raglan, he built a church; then he founded a monastery 
in a place which is called Llan Gyvelach, in the region of 
Gower, in which, afterwards, he received the altar, which 
was sent to him. Also he cured Peibio, the blind king of 


Erging, by restoring light to his eyes. Moreover, two saints, 
Boducat and Maitrun^ in the province of Cedweli, submitted 
to him. 

14. When, therefore, these had been founded in the 
usual way, and what was of use for canonical discipline 
had been arranged, and a rule for the monastic life had 
been established, he returned to the place, whence he had 
previously started forth on his wanderings, that is, to Vetus 
Rubus, Hen Vynyw. And bishop Guistilianus, his fratruelis, 
sojourned there; and as they comforted one another with 
religious talk, Saint David said, "An angel of the Lord 
hath spoken to me saying, 'From the place where thou 
dost propose to serve, scarcely one in a hundred will be 
able to escape to the kingdom of God/ And he hath 
shown me a place whence few shall go to hell, for everyone 
who shall have been buried in the cemetery of that place 
in sound faith shall obtain mercy." 

15. On a certain day David and his three most faithful 
disciples, accompanied by a great throng of fellow-disciples, 
meet together, to wit, Aeddan, Eiludd and Ysvael, and with 
one mind they go together to the place which the angel had 
mentioned beforehand, that is, Vallis Rosina, which the 
Britons commonly call Hodnant, in which place, when the 
first hearth had been kindled in the name of the Lord, 
the smoke rose upwards, and circling round filled, as it 
seemed, the whole of the island and Ireland besides. 

1 6. In the vicinity near the spot there was a certain 
chieftain and druid, called Bwya, an Irishman, who sitting 
within the walls of his citadel whilst the beams of the sun were 
scattered over the world, trembled at the sight of such a 
portent and was overcome; and he was stirred with such 
resentment that he forgot his meal and spent the whole day 
grieving. To whom his wife came and asked why in so un- 
wonted a manner he had forgotten his repast. " Why so sad 
and cast down," said she, "art thou grieving in thyself?" 


To this he answered, " I grieve to have seen smoke rising 
from Vallis Rosina, which encircled the whole country, for 
I hold it as certain that the kindler of that fire shall excel 
all in power and renown in every part that the smoke of 
his sacrifice has encircled even to the end of the world, for 
that smoke as by a token predicts his fame." His wife, 
enraged, said to him, "Arise, and take a troop of servants, 
and with drawn swords follow up that man and his servants 
who have dared such an offence as to kindle fire on thy 
lands without thy bidding, -and destroy them all." Bwya 
and his followers arrived to slay David and his disciples, 
but a fever suddenly took them as they proceeded on their 
way, and they were powerless to kill David or his attendants, 
but they blasphemed the Lord and holy David, and uttered 
evil words, for the wish to injure was not wanting, although 
the power to act was thwarted by the will of the Eternal 
and rendered void. When they had returned thence home, 
they met his wife, who said, "Our cattle and beasts of 
burden and sheep and all the stock are dead." And Bwya 
and his wife and all his household lamented bitterly, and 
they all wailed together and said, "That saint and his 
disciples, whom we blasphemed, have caused the death 
of our cattle. Let us, therefore, turn back, and asking for 
mercy on bended knees, let us pray the servant of God 
that he may so perchance pity us and the cattle." And they 
return and approach the servant of God, and ask for mercy 
with tears and entreaties. " The land," say they, " whereon 
thou art, shall be thine for ever." And Bwya gave that 
day to holy David the whole of Vallis Rosina for a per- 
petual possession. And David, the servant of God, answered 
kindly, "Your cattle," said he, "shall be restored to life." 
And Bwya, when he returned home, found his cattle alive 
and well. 

17. Next day his wife, inflamed by malicious envy, 
called together her female slaves. "Go you," said she, 


" to the river which is called Alun, and display your naked 
bodies in the sight of the saints, and indulge in lewd talk." 
The female slaves obey, they make shameless sport, they 
simulate coition, they display love's alluring embraces. They 
entice the minds of some of the monks to wanton thoughts, 
and cause unrest in those of others. But all his disciples, 
unable to endure this intolerable affront, said to holy David, 
" Let us fly from this place because we cannot dwell here 
owing to the molestation of these spiteful sluts." But the 
father, Saint David, firm in patient long-suffering, whose 
purpose was neither dissolved when softened by prosperity, 
nor terrified when weakened by adversity, " Know," said 
he, "that the world hates you, but understand that the 
people of Israel, accompanied by the ark of the covenant, 
when they entered the land of promise, having been beaten 
in successive perilous battles but not overcome, destroyed 
the people dwelling near and the uncircumcised, which 
struggle by a clear token indicates our victory. For he, 
who seeks the promise of the heavenly country, must needs 
be wearied with adversities and yet not overcome, but at 
the last with Christ as comrade conquer the unclean stain 
of vices. We ought, therefore, not to be overcome of evil, 
but to overcome evil with good, because if Christ is for us, 
who is against us? Be strong, therefore, in a war which 
may be won, lest your enemy rejoice in your flight. We 
ought to remain, and Bwya to leave." With these words 
he strengthened the hearts of the disciples, and that night 
David fasted and his disciples till the morning. 

1 8. That day Bwya's wife said to her stepdaughter, 
" Let us go together to the valley of the Alun and let us 
look for its cucumeri^ that we may find nuts in them." And 
she humbly answered her stepmother, " Behold, I am ready." 
They went together to the bottom of the aforesaid valley, 
and when they had arrived there, the stepmother sat down 
and spoke softly to her stepdaughter, Dunod by name : 


" Place thy head in my lap, for I wish quietly to examine 
thy locks." And the guileless girl, who from her infancy 
had lived piously and chastely amid crowds of the worst 
women, bends her inoffensive head on the lap of her step- 
mother. But that savage stepmother quickly drew forth 
her knife, and cut off the head of that most happy virgin. 
Her blood flowed on the earth, and there sprang up from 
that spot a clear running fountain, which has healed in 
abundance many human sicknesses ; which spot the people 
call to this day Merthyr Dunod. The stepmother fled from 
Bwya, and no one under heaven knows by what death she 
ended her life. And so Bwya the chieftain wept bitterly, 
but David with his disciples sang praises to the eternal 

19. And so Bwya resolved to destroy holy David, but 
his enemy, Lisa by name, the son of Paucaut^ cut off his 
head in his citadel, for his gate lay open at daybreak, when 
his enemy arrived unexpectedly from his ship; and soon 
fire fell from heaven and speedily burnt up the whole of 
his building. Let no one doubt that it was the Lord for 
his servant, David's, sake, who struck down Bwya and his 
wife. For it is meet that destruction should overtake him, 
who was threatening with slaughter the man of God, and 
that he who was pitiless to the servants of God should 
suffer vengeance without pity. 

20. The malice of enemies having thus been expelled 
by the good God, the monastic community in the Lord 
built a notable monastery in the place, which the angel 
had foreshown. 

21. And when everything was completed, j the saintly 
father decreed with fervour such rigour of cenobitical 
purpose that every monk should toil at daily labour, aS3 
spend his life in common, working with his hands, " for 
he who labours not," says the apostle, "let him not eat." 
For knowing that untroubled rest was the fomenter and 


mother of vices, he subjected the shoulders of the monks 
to divine fatigues. For those, who bend thought and time 
to leisurely repose, generate an unstable spirit of apathy / 
and restless incitements to lust. / 

22. Therefore with increasing zeal they labour with 
hand and foot ; they place the yoke on their shoulders ; 
with unwearied arm they dig into the ground mattocks and 
spades ; they carry in their saintly hands hoes and saws for 
cutting ; they provide with their own labour all the necessities 
of the community. Possessions they regard with disdain ; 
they reject the gifts of the unjust ; they detest riches. No 
care of oxen is introduced for ploughing. Each to himself 
and the brethren is riches, each too an ox. When work 
was done, no complaint was heard, no conversation was 
held beyond what was necessary. But each did the task 
enjoined either with prayer or well-directed meditation. 

23. When outside labour was finished, they 'returned 
to the cells of the monastery, and spent the whole day till 
evening in reading or writing or praying. On the approach 
of evening, when the stroke of the bell was heard, each one 
left his study, for if the stroke should sound in the ears of , 
anyone, the top of a letter having been written or even half 
the form of that letter, they rose up the more quickly and 
left their tasks, and thus in silence proceeded to church 
without any idle talk. When the chanting of the psalms 
is done, the voice being in accord with the intention of the 
heart, they worship on bended knees until the stars are 
seen in heaven bringing the day to a close. The father 
alone, after all had gone out, poured forth a prayer in secret 
to God for the state of the Church. 

24. At length they assemble at table. They relieve, 
each one, their wearied limbs, refreshed by partaking of 
supper, not however to excess, for too much, though it be 
of bread only, produces wantonness, but on that occasion 
they all take supper in accordance with the varying con- 


dition of their bodies and ages. Not dishes of various 
tastes lie before them or too dainty provisions, but having 
fed on bread and herbs seasoned with salt, they assuage 
ardent thirst with a temperate sort of drink. On that 
occasion they provide for the sick and those advanced in 
age, and even those wearied with a long journey, some 
refreshments of a more appetising sort, for one must not 
weigh out to all in equal measure. 

25. After giving of thanks, they go to the church at 
the canonical ringing, and there they are insistent in 
watchings, prayers, and genuflexions for about three hours. 
As long as they prayed in church, none dared unrestrainedly 
to yawn, none to sneeze, none to spit. 

26. These things being so done, they compose their 
limbs for sleep. Waking at cockcrow, they devote them- 
selves to prayer on bended knee, and then spend the whole 
day without sleep from morning till night. And in like 
manner they serve through other nights. 

27. From the eve of the sabbath until after dawn 
light shall have begun in the first hour of the Lord's Day 
they apply themselves to watchings, prayers, and genu- 
flexions, one hour then excepted after the matins of the 

28. They open out their thoughts to the father, and 
obtain the father's permission even for the requirements of 
nature. All things are common. Nothing is "mine" or 
" thine," for anyone who should say either " my book " or 
what not, would straightway be subjected to hard penance. 
They were wont to wear mean garments, especially skins. 
Obedience was not lacking to the father's order. There 
was exceeding perseverance in doing what was to be done. 
There was uprightness in all. 

29. For he who, desiring this manner of saintly living, 
should ask to enter the community of the brethren, would 
first remain for ten days at the doors of the monastery as 


one rejected, being subjected also to reproachful words. 
But if he stood his ground, duly exercising patience till 
the tenth day, he was first received under the elder who 
by authority presided over the entrance and served him. 
And when he had toiled there for a long time, many 
antipathies of his soul being broken, he was at length 
deemed worthy of entering the society of the brethren. 

30. No superfluity was allowed ; voluntary poverty was 
loved. For whosoever desired their mode of life, the saintly 
father would receive none of his substance, which he had 
parted with in renouncing the world, not even one penny, 
so to speak, for the use of the monastery. But being 
received naked, as one escaping from shipwreck, he might 
in no way extol or raise himself among the brethren, or 
relying on his wealth fail to enter upon equal toil with the 
brethren. Nor, vacillating as to the way of religion, might 
he extort by force what he left to the monastery, and move 
to wrath the patience of the brethren. 

31. /The father himself pouring forth fountains of tears 
daily, irradiating with censed holocausts of prayers, and 
blazing with a, double flame of charity, consecrated with 
pure hands the due oblation of the Lord's Body, and thus 
after matins proceeded alone to angelic discourse. After 
this he immediately used to seek cold water, in which by 
lingering a long while wet he subdued every heat of the 
flesh. | Afterwards he was wont to spend the whole day, 
unshaken and unwearied, in teaching, praying, and genu- 
flecting, in care for the brethren, and also in feeding a 
multitude of the bereft, orphans, widows, the needy, the 
weak, the infirm, and pilgrims. So he began, continued, 
and ended. As for the rest of his severe living, although 
necessary for imitation, the intended shortness of this little 
work forbids us to set it forth. But imitating the Egyptian 
monks he led a life similar to theirs. 

32. When, therefore, the report of holy David's good 


name was heard, kings and princes of this world abandon 
their kingdoms and seek his monastery. Hence it was that 
Constantine, king of the Cornishmen, abandoned his king- 
dom and bent the necks of his pride, untamed before, in 
humble obedience in the monastery of this father. And 
when he had followed this mode of life for a long time in 
faithful service, he at length founded a monastery in another 
far-off country. 

But seeing that we have said enough of his manner of 
life, let us now return again to his miracles. 

33. On a certain day when the brethren were assembled 
together, they complain, saying, " This place of yours," say 
they, "has waters in winter, but in summer scarcely does 
the river flow in a tiny stream." Having heard this, the 
holy father started out and arrived at a place very near, 
where an angel was wont to talk with him ; and praying there 
hard and long, with eyes raised to heaven, he asked for the 
water needed. With the voice of his praying there flowed 
a fountain of clearest water. And because the country was 
not fruitful in vines, it was turned into wine for the use of 
the sacrament of the Lord's Body and Blood, so that in his 
time it never lacked pure wine, a most worthy gift to such a 
man from the Lord God. But we know of other sweet 
waters too, given by the disciples in imitation of the father, 
serviceable for human use and health. 

34. Also, on a day, a certain rustic, named Terdi, pray- . 
ing and beseeching much, sought from him services of love, 
saying, " Our land is drained dry of water, wherefore we 
have a laborious journey to get water, for the river is a long 
way off." The holy father, pitying the need of his neigh- 
bours, humbly started forth, believing that he could find 
water by the suppliant request of his prayer and by his most 
humble compassion. Starting out, therefore, and opening 
a little bit of the surface of the soil with the point of his 
bachall, a most clear fountain gushed forth, which, bubbling 


up in a continual vein, supplies the coldest water in time of 


35. On another occasion while Saint Aeddan, his 
disciple, chanced to be reading out of doors to confirm 
what he had received of doctrine, the prior of the monastery 
came and bade him take two oxen and go bring timber from 
the valley, for the wood was situated at a distance. Aeddan, 
the disciple, obeyed sooner than the word, without even 
stopping to close the book, and made for the wood. When 
the timber was made ready and placed on the animals, he 
took the road back. Now as the road on which he travelled 
led to a steep precipice, the oxen were hurled into the sea 
together with the vehicle. As they are rushing over, he 
makes the sign of the cross over them, and so it was that 
he received the oxen safe and sound from the waves, 
together with the vehicle, and joyfully proceeded on his 
way. While he journeyed, there begins such a deluge of 
rairi that the ditches flowed in torrents. When the journey 
was done, and the oxen released from toil, he goes where 
he had left the book and finds it open and uninjured by the 
rain even as he left it. Whilst the brethren were listening 
to these events, both the grace of the father and the humility 
of the disciple were equally extolled. For the grace of 
the father pointed to the book, untouched by the rain and 
preserved for the obedient disciple, whilst the humility of 
the disciple preserves the oxen safe for the father. 

36. When Saint Aeddan had been fully instructed, 
being potent in virtues and thoroughly purified from vices, 
he made for Ireland. And having constructed a monastery 
there, which in the Irish language is called Guernin, Ferns, 
he led a most holy life. 

37. When on an Easter Eve he was the more earnestly 
engaged in prayer, an angel appeared to him, saying, 
{ ' Knowest thou that to-morrow at meal-time poison will be 
placed by certain of the brethrei? before the venerable Saint 


David, to wit, thy father ? " Saint Aeddan answered and 
said, " I know it not." The angel said to him, "Send one 
of the servants to the father to tell him." Saint Aeddan 
answered and said, "Neither is there a ship ready, nor is 
the wind right for sailing." The angel said to him, "Let 
thy fellow-disciple, called Scutinus^ proceed to the sea-shore, 
for I will bear him across thither." The disciple obeys and 
goes to the shore, and enters the water to his knee. And 
a monster took him and carried him across to the confines 
of the monastery. 

38. When the solemnities of Easter were over, the holy 
father, Saint David, goes to the refectory to a meal with the 
brethren. There met him his former disciple, Scutinus, 
who told him all the things which had been done against 
him and what the angel had enjoined concerning him. 
They joyfully recline together in the refectory, giving thanks 
to God. When prayer was ended, up rose the deacon, who 
had been wont to minister to the father, and placed on the 
table the bread prepared with poison, the cellarer and the 
prior consenting to the same. Scutinus, who has also 
another name, Scolanus, stood up and said, "To-day, 
brother, you will perform no service to the father, for I 
myself will do it." The deacon withdrew in confusion, 
being conscious of the crime, and rigid with astonishment. 
And holy David took the poisoned bread, and dividing it 
into three parts, gave one to a little dog which stood outside 
by the door, and as soon as it had tasted the bit it died a 
wretched death, for in the twinkling of an eye all its hair 
fell off, so that its entrails burst forth, its skin splitting all 
over; and all the brethren who saw it were astonished. 
And holy David threw the second part to a raven, which 
was in its nest in an ash, which was between the refectory 
and the river on the south side, and as soon as it touched it 
with its beak, it fell lifeless from the tree. But the third 
part holy David held in his hand, and blessed; and he ate 


it with giving of thanks, and all the brethren looked at 
him, amazed with wonder, for about three hours. He 
dauntless preserved his life intact, no sign of the deadly 
poison appearing. And holy David told his brethren 
everything which had been done by the three men aforesaid. 
And all the brethren stood up and lamented aloud, and 
cursed those treacherous men, to wit, the prior, the cellarer, 
and the deacon, and damned them and their successors, 
declaring with one voice that they should never have a part 
in the heavenly kingdom throughout eternity. 

39. At another time too, when among others that most 
faithful abbot of the Irish, whose name was Barre, had 
an unquenchable desire to visit the relics of the holy 
apostles, Peter and Paul, and undertook with unwearied 
feet the journey devoted to pilgrimage, after he had com- 
pleted his salutary vow and was returning to the enclosures 
of his monastery, he visited the holy man, Saint David ; and 
having sojourned there a little while by request in holy 
intercourse, he was delayed for a longer period, for the ship, 
wherein he had made ready to revisit his native land, was 
hindered by lack of winds. Fearing lest there should arise 
contentions, strifes, and quarrels among the brethren in 
the absence of their abbot, the bond of charity being relaxed, 
even as bees, when the king is destroyed, pull asunder and 
ruin the stores of honeycombs, which they had secured with 
firm fastening, he searched with anxious mind and found a 
wondrous path. For on a day he asked for the horse whereon 
the holy father, David, had been wont to ride for ecclesi- 
astical purposes, and obtained leave. Having received the 
father's blessing he goes to the harbour, enters the sea, and 
putting his trust in the blessing of the father and the 
support of the horse he uses it for a ship, inasmuch as the 
horse ploughed through the swelling masses of the waves as 
through a level field. 

40. As he was proceeding further into the sea, he 


appeared where Saint Brendan was leading a wondrous life 
on a marine animal. When Saint Brendan saw a man 
horse-riding in the sea, he was astonished and said, " God 
is wonderful in his saints." The horseman drew near 
where he was, so that they were able to exchange greetings. 
When they had saluted one another, Brendan asks whence 
he was, and from whom he had come, and how he rode a 
horse in the sea. Barre, after having narrated to him the 
causes of his pilgrimage, said, "Since the vessel's delay 
kept me from my brethren, the holy father, David, gave me 
the horse whereon he had been wont to ride that thereby I 
might satisfy my need, and so, fortified by his blessing, I 
entered on such a journey." Brendan said to him, "Go in 
peace, I will come and see him." Earre arrived in his 
native land, his journey unbroken, and narrated to the 
brethren who met him what things had been done. They 
kept the horse in the service of the monastery till its death. 
But after its death they made a painted image of the horse 
as a memorial of the miracle, which even till now may be 
found in the island of the Irish, covered with gold. It is 
also renowned for the number of its miracles. 

41. On another occasion also, his other disciple, 
Modomnoc by name, was excavating a road with the brethren 
on the steep near the confines of the monastery, whereby 
an easier access might be made for wayfarers to convey 
their burdens of necessities. He said to one of those who 
were working, "Why dost thou work so lazily and so 
slowly?" The man, stirred by the spirit of anger against 
him who said the words, lifted up the iron which he held in 
his hand, to wit, a two-edged axe, and attempted to strike 
him on the head. The holy father, David, saw this from a 
distance, and raised his hand towards them, making the 
sign of the cross; and so the hand of him striking was 

42. But almost a third part or fourth of Ireland is subject 


to David the Waterman, where Maeddog was, who also from 
infancy is Aeddan, to whom Saint David gave a little bell, 
which is called "Cruedin." But he, sailing to Ireland, 
forgot his little bell. And Maeddog sent a messenger to 
noly David that he might send the dear little bell across to 
him. And Saint David said, "Go, boy, to thy master.'' 
And it was done while that messenger was returning. And 
lo, the little bell on the morrow was alongside of the 
renowned Aeddan, an angel carrying it across the sea 
before his messenger had arrived. 

43. After that the aforesaid Modomnoc had devoted 
himself for a long lapse of years to the humility of obedience, 
his virtuous merits increasing, he sought the island of 
Ireland. The whole multitude of bees followed the ship 
which he had entered and settled with him in the ship, 
where he had sat down, on the ship's prow. For as he 
attended on the bees' quarters, he paid heed with the rest 
of the work of the brotherhood to the hives in rearing the 
young of the swarms, whereby he might procure some 
luxuries of sweeter food for those in need. He, loath to 
defraud the fraternal community, returned, re-appearing in 
the presence of the holy father, and attended by the swarm 
of bees, which flew to their own quarters. David blessed 
him for his humility. Then bidding farewell to the father 
and brethren, and being saluted, he went away, but again 
the bees follow him. And it so happened that, whenever 
he started forth, they also followed. Again, .a third time, 
he sailed for a while, and it happened as before. The 
swarms followed him, and he returned to David thrice. On 
the third occasion holy David dismissed Modomnoc to sail 
with the bees, and he blessed them, saying, " May the land 
to which ye hasten abound with your offspring. Never may 
your progeny be wanting in it. Our monastery will be 
deserted for ever by you. Never shall your offspring grow 
up in (it." That this has continued till now we have learnt 


by experience, for we find swarms imported into the monas- 
tery of this father, but they, remaining there a little while, 
gradually cease. Ireland, however, wherein never could 
bees exist till that time, is enriched with abundance of honey. 
And so by the blessing of the holy father they have multi- 
plied in the island of Ireland, since it is agreed that they 
coukTby no means exist there at first, for if you should 
cast Irish earth or stone in the midst of bees, they would 
shun it greatly, being scattered and flying away. 

44. As his merits increased, his offices of honour in- 
creased also. For one night an angel visited him, and said 
to him, " To-morrow thou wilt gird thyself. Put on thy 
shoes. Start to go to Jerusalem. Undertake the desired 
journey. But two others will I call also to be thy com- 
panions on the way, to wit, Eiludd," who is now commonly 
called Teilo, who formerly was a monk in his monastery, 
" and Padarn," whose life and miracles are contained in his 
history. The holy father, wondering at the word of com- 
mand, said, "How shall this be, for the comrades whom 
thou dost promise are distant by the space of three days, or 
as many more, from us and from themselves ? By no means, 
therefore, shall we come together to-morrow." The angel 
informs him, " I will go this night to each of them, and 
they shall assemble at the place appointed, which I now 
shew." Saint David, making no delay, settled what was 
necessary for the monastery, received the blessing of the 
brethren, and started on his way early in the morning. He 
arrives at the appointed place, finds there the promised 
brethren, and together they enter on the journey. Their 
pilgrimage is on terms of equality, for none in mind is prior 
to another, each of them being servant, each being master. 
They persevere in prayer, and water the way with tears. 
The further the foot proceeded, the reward increased, they 
being one as to their mind, one in joy, one in sorrow. 

45. When they had sailed over the Britannic sea and 


were come into the Gauls and were hearing the strange 
languages of diverse nations, father David was endowed with 
the gift of tongues like that apostolic gathering of old, lest 
when in need among foreign peoples they might want an 
interpreter, and also that they might confirm the faith of 
others with the word of truth. 

46. At length they arrive at the confines of the desired 
city, Jerusalem. On the night before their arrival an angel 
appeared to the Patriarch in a dream, saying, "Three 
catholic men are coming from the limits of the west, whom 
thou art to receive with joy and the grace of hospitality, and 
to consecrate for me to the episcopate." The Patriarch 
made ready three most honourable seats, and when the 
saints came into the city he rejoiced with great joy and 
received them graciously into the seats which had been 
prepared. After indulging in spiritual conversation, they 
return thanks to God. Then supported by the divine 
choice, he promotes holy David to the archiepiscopate. 

47. When these things were ended, the Patriarch 
addressed them, and said, " Obey my voice, and attend to 
what I direct. The power of the Jews (says he) grows 
strong against the Christians. They alarm us, they reject 
the faith. Attend ye, therefore, and go preach daily that 
their vehemence, being confuted, may quiet down, knowing 
that the Christian faith is spread abroad to the limits of the 
west and sounded forth to the utmost parts of the earth." 
They obey the command. They preach, each of them, 
every day. Their preaching becomes acceptable. Many 
come together to the faith. Others they strengthen. 

48. When all things are done, they undertake to return 
to their native land. Then it was that the Patriarch pre- 
sented father David with four gifts, to wit, a consecrated 
Altar, whereon he was wont to consecrate the Lord's Body, 
which, potent in innumerable miracles, has never been seen 
by men from the death of its pontiff, but covered with skin 


veils, lies hidden away. Also, a remarkable Bell, which too 
is renowned for miracles. A Bachall. And a Tunic woven 
with gold. The Bachall, resplendent with glorious miracles, 
is extolled throughout the whole of our country for its 
wonders. " But because," said the Patriarch, " they are a 
labour for you to carry on the journey, whilst going back to 
your country, return in peace. I shall send them over after 
you." .They bid farewell to the father, and come to their 
native land. They severally await the promise of the 
Patriarch and receive their gifts sent to them through angels, 
David in the monastery called Llan Gyvelach, Padarn and 
Eiludd in their respective monasteries. Therefore it is that 
the common people call them gifts from heaven. 

49. Because after the aid of Saint Germanus for the 
second time the Pelagian heresy was reviving, introducing 
the vigour of its stubbornness, like the venom of a poisonous 
serpent, into the inmost joints of the country, there gathers 
a universal synod of all the bishops of Britannia. Accord- 
ingly, one hundred and eighteen bishops having assembled, 
there came an innumerable multitude of presbyters, abbots, 
and other orders, kings, princes, laics, men and women, so 
that this vast army covered all the places round about. 
The bishops whisper among themselves, saying, " So great 
is the multitude that not only a voice, but even a trumpet's 
call will fail to sound into the ears of everybody. Con- 
sequently almost the whole of the people will be unaffected 
(or alienated) by the preaching, and will carry the heretical 
taint back with them as they return home." It is arranged, 
therefore, to preach to the people in this manner, that a 
heap of garments should be piled up on high ground, 
whereon one should stand and preach from above; and 
whosoever should be endowed with such gift of speech that 
his discourse sounded into the ears of all, who stood afar 
off, should be made with universal consent metropolitan 
archbishop. Then at the appointed place, the name of 


which is B^evi, they endeavour to preach on a raised tower 
of garments, but scarcely does speech, being swallowed as it 
were in the throat, reach the very nearest. The people 
wait for the word, but the most part hear it not. One after 
another tries to expound, but they avail nothing. The 
difficulty increases. They fear the people will return to 
their homes with the heresy undiscussed. "We have 
preached," say they, "and have no gain. And so our 
labour is rendered void." One of the bishops, called Paul- 
inus, rises, with whom the pontiff, Saint David, had formerly 
read, and says, " There is one, made bishop by the Patriarch, 
who has not yet appeared at our synod, an eloquent man, 
full of grace, approved in religion, who has an angel as 
comrade, a lovable man, pleasing in feature, distinguished 
in form, upright in stature of four cubits. My advice, 
therefore, is that you invite him." 

50. Messengers are forthwith sent. They come to 
the holy bishop. They announce for what purpose they 
had arrived. The holy bishop refuses, saying, "Let no one 
tempt me. "What they cannot do, who am I that I can do 
it? I acknowledge my lowliness. Depart ye in peace." 
Messengers are sent a second and "third time, but neither so 
does he consent. At last the most holy men and the most 
faithful brethren, Daniel and Dubricius, are sent. Saint 
David, the bishop, foreseeing this by the spirit of prophecy, 
says to his brethren, "To-day, brethren, most holy men 
are visiting us. Receive them with a joyful mind. Pro- 
cure fishes with bread and water." The brethren arrive. 
They salute one another. They enter into holy conversation; 
A meal is placed before them. They affirm that never will 
they eat in his monastery unless he returns with them to 
the synod. To this the saint replied, "Refuse you I can- 
not Eat, and we will visit the synod together, but I am 
unable to preach on the occasion. Yet with prayers I shall 
bring what little help I may." 


51. They start out and arrive at a place very hear to 
the synod, and lo ! they hear lamentable mourning close by. 
Says the saint to his companions, " I will go where this 
great wailing may be." His companions answered and 
said, "We will go to the assembly lest our delay vexes 
those who are waiting for us." But the man of God went 
forward and came to the place where the lamentation was, 
by the river Teivi. And lo ! a widowed mother was watch- 
ing over the body of her dead boy, who was called Magnus. 
Blessed David consoled the mother and comforted her 
with salutary admonitions, but she, having heard of .his 
fame, threw herself at his feet, and begged with distressing 
appeals that he should have pity on her. The man of God, 
having compassion on human weakness, went near to the 
body of the deceased, and watered the face with tears, and 
threw himself on the body of .the dead, and prayed to the 
Lord, and said, " O Lord, my God, who didst descend into 
this world for us sinners from the bosom of the Father to 
redeem us from the jaws of the old enemy, have pity on 
this widow, and restore life to her only son, and breathe into 
him the breath of life, that Thy name may be magnified in 
all the earth." Then the limbs became warm, the soul re- 
turned, the body stirred. And taking the boy's hand, he 
restored him alive and well to his mother. The mother 
turns her sad weeping into joyful tears and says, "To me 
my son was dead, but to thee and God let him live hence- 
forth." The holy man took the boy and placed on his 
shoulders the copy of the Gospel which he always carried 
on his breast, and caused him to go with him to the synod. 
Afterward, as long as he lived, he led a holy life for many 
years. And all, who beheld that miracle, praised the Lord 
and holy David. 

52. Then he enters the synod. The company of bishops 
rejoices. The people are glad. The whole army exults. 
He is asked to preach. He rejects not the wish of the 


council. They bid him mount the pile of garments, but he 
refused. So he orders the boy newly raised from the dead 
to spread his handkerchief under his feet. On this he 
stands, and expounded the gospel and the law as from a 
trumpet. In the presence of all a snow-white pigeon, sent 
from heaven, settled on his shoulders, which remained as 
long as he preached. While he was holding forth in a voice 
clear to all, both to those nearest to him and equally to 
those who were far off, the ground beneath him swells 
upwards and is raised into a hill. Placed on the top he is 
seen by all, so that standing on a high hill he might lift his 
voice like a trumpet. On the top of this hill a church is 
situated. The heresy is expelled. The faith is confirmed in 
sound hearts. All are in agreement. They pay thanks to 
God and to Saint David. 

53. Then, blessed and extolled by the mouth of all, 
he is with the consent of all the bishops, kings, princes, 
nobles, and all grades of the whole Britannic race, made 2 
archbishop, and his monastery too is declared the metropolis 
of the whole country, so that whoever ruled it should be 
accounted archbishop. 

54. The heresy, therefore, having been expelled, decrees , 
of catholic and ecclesiastical rule are confirmed, which, owing 
to the frequent and cruel attacks of enemies, have become 
void, and, being almost forgotten, have ceased to be. By 
these, as though roused from heavy slumber, they one and 
all zealously waged the battles of the Lord. They are found 
in part in the oldest writings of the father, enjoined in his 
own sacred hand. 

55. Then, when a number of seasons was gone, another 
synod assembles, called Victory, in which a crowd of bishops, 
priests, and abbots, having come together, renew what they 
had confirmed hi the former, after a close and severe scrutiny, 
some useful matters being added. So from these two 
synods, all the churches of our country take their standard 


and rule by Roman authority. The decrees which he had 
affirmed with his mouth, the bishop alone committed to 
writing with his own sacred hand. 

56. Consequently in every place throughout the whole 
country the brethren built monasteries. Everywhere indi- 
cations of churches are heard. Everywhere sounds of 
prayers are raised to the stars. Everywhere miracles are 
reported to the bosom of the Church on unwearied shoulders. 
Everywhere offerings of charity are distributed to the needy 
with an open hand. Saint David, the bishop, was made the 
chief overseer of all, the chief protector, the chief spokes- 
man, from whom all received the rule and model of right 
living. He was the standard for all, he was consecration, he 
was benediction, he was absolution and correction, learning 
to readers, life to the needy, nourishment to orphans, sup- 
port to widows, head to the country, rule to the monks, a 
way to seculars, all things to all men. What swarms of 
monks he engendered ! With what advantage he profited 
all ! With what blaze of miracles he shone ! 

57. All the bishops surrendered to holy David both 
monarchy and primacy, and they all agreed to the granting 
of his right of sanctuary, that it should apply to every 
ravisher and homicide and sinner, and to every evil person 
flying from, place to place, in priority to every saint and 
kings and persons of the whole Britannic island, in every 
kingdom and in each region, wherever there may be land 
consecrated to holy David. And let no kings or elders or 
governors, or even bishops or superiors and saints, dare to 
provide right of sanctuary in priority to holy David. Indeed 
he provides right of sanctuary before every person, and there 
is none prior to him, because he is head and leader and 
primate over all the Britons. And all the saints ordained 
that whosoever should not observe that decree, namely, Saint 
David's right of sanctuary, should be anathema and accursed. 

58. And thus continuing into old age he was renowned 


as the head of all the Britannic race and the honour of his 
country, which old age he completed in a round one hundred 
and forty-seven years. 

59. When the day was drawing nigh for compensating 
the hallowed rewards of good deeds, on the eighth day before 
the first of March, whilst the brethren were observing matins, 
an angel addressed him, announcing in a loud voice, " The 
long-desired day," said he, "is now reckoned nigh at hand." 
The holy bishop recognised the friendly voice, and said to 
him with a joyful mind, " Lord, now lettest thou Thy servant 
depart in peace." The brethren merely received the sound 
into their ears without distinguishing th$ words, for they 
had heard them conversing together and were fallen to the 
earth in terror. Then the whole monastery is filled with 
angelic harmonies and sweet-smelling fragrance. The holy 
bishop calling with a loud voice, with mind intent on heaven, 
says, "Lord Jesus Christ, receive my spirit." Again the 
angel speaks in a clear voice, the brethren understanding 
the same, " Prepare and gird thyself. On the first of March 
the Lord Jesus Christ, accompanied by a great host of 
angels, will come to meet thee." 

60. When these things were heard, the brethren made 
great lamentation with violent sobs. There begins a great 
sorrowing. The monastery overflows with tears, saying, 
" O Saint David, bishop, remove our sadness." He, caress- 
ing them and sustaining them with comforting consolations, 
said, "Brothers, be ye constant. The yoke, which with 
single mind ye have taken, bear ye to the end ; and what- 
soever ye have seen with me and heard, keep and fulfil." 
From that hour, therefore, to the day of his death he re- 
mained in the church and preached to all. 

6 1. That report, therefore, was carried most swiftly in 
one day throughout the whole of Britannia and Ireland by 
the angel, saying, "Know ye that next week your master, 
holy David, will migrate from this light to the Lord." 


62. Then there arrive from all sides assemblies of saints, 
like bees to a hive on the approach of a storm, who hasten 
with speed to visit the holy father. The monastery over- 
flows with tears. Lamentation resounds to the stars. 
Youths mourn him as a father, old men as a son. On the 
intervening Sunday, whilst a very great multitude is listening, 
he preached a most noble sermon, and consecrated the 
Lord's Body with pure hands. Having partaken of the 
Body and Blood of the Lord, he was immediately seized with 
pain and became unwell. When he had finished the office 
and blessed the people, he addressed them all, saying, " My 
brethren, persevere in these things which ye have learnt 
from me and which ye have seen with me. I on the 
third day of the week on the first of March shall go the 
way of my fathers. Fare ye well in the Lord. I shall 
depart. Never shall we be seen on this earth again." 
Then the voice of all the faithful was raised in lamentation 
and in wailings, saying, "O that the earth would swallow 
us, the fire consume us, the sea cover us ! O that death by 
a sudden irruption would overtake us ! Would that the 
mountains would fall upon us ! " Almost all yielded them- 
selves to death. From Sunday night till the fourth day of 
the week when he was dead, all who came remained weeping, 
fasting, and watching. 

63. And so when the third day of the week was come, 
at cock crowing the monastery is filled with angelic choirs, 
and is melodious with heavenly songs, and is full of sweetest 
fragrance. At the hour of matins, when the clerks were 
replying to the songs with psalms and hymns, the Lord 
Jesus deigned to bestow his presence for the consolation of 
the father, as he had promised by the angel. When he 
saw him, he altogether rejoiced in spirit. "Take me," 
said he, "after thee." With these words he gave back his 
life to God, Christ being his companion, and accompanied 
by the angelic host he went to the abodes of Heaven. 


64. O, who then could bear the weeping of the saints, 
the sad sighs of the anchorites^ the groaning of the priests, 
the wailings of the disciples, who exclaimed, "By whom 
shall we be taught ? ", the grief of the pilgrims, saying, " By 
whom shall we be aided ? ", the despair of kings, who said, 
" By whom shall we be appointed, corrected and established ? 
Who so very mild a father as David ? Who shall intercede 
for us to the Lord?", the lamentations of peoples, the 
grief of paupers, the cry ings of sick folk, the clamour of 
monks, the tears of virgins, married people, penitents, young 
men, young women, boys, girls, infants sucking breasts ? 
Why do I delay ? The voice of all was one of mourners, 
for kings grieved for him as an arbiter, old men wailed for 
him as a brother, adults honoured him as a father, nay, he 
was one whom all venerated as God. 

65. And so his body, carried in the arms of holy 
brethren, and accompanied by a great throng, is honourably 
committed to the earth and buried in his own monastery. 
But his soul without any limit of passing time is crowned 
for ever and ever. 

May he, whose festival we devoutly celebrate on earth, 
unite us by his intercessions to the angelic citizens, God 
being over all and our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom is 
honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

66. These and many other things did the holy father, 
David, do, while a corruptible and burdensome habitation 
carried his soul. But out of many we have in a mean form 
of speech supplied a few to assuage the thirst of the ardent. 
Even as none can exhaust to dryness in the hollow of a shallow 
vessel a stream flowing from a perpetual fountain, so none 
can commit to writing even with an iron pen all his miracu- 
lous signs, his most devoted practice of the virtues, and his 
observance of the commandments. But these few things 
out of many, as we have said, we have collected together 


into one place for example to all and for the glory of the 
father. They have been found scattered in very old writ- 
ings of the country, especially of the monastery itself, which 
have survived until now, eaten away by the constant de- 
vouring of moths and the yearly borings of ages through 
the hours and seasons, and written according to the old 
style of the ancients. Having brought them together into 
one place, as from a flowery garden of diverse plants, I, 
sucking most .discriminatingly as it were with the mouth of 
a bee, have collected them to the glory of so great a father 
and for the use of others, lest they should perish. But 
those things, now that he has laid aside the burden of the 
flesh and sees God face to face, which he does and has 
done at constant intervals of time, so much the more 
effectively as he adheres closer to God, he, who would wish 
to know of them, can do so from the relation of many. 

67. And as for me, who am named Rhygyvarch, and 
who, although rashly, have applied the capacity of my small 
intelligence to these things, let those who shall have perused 
them with a devout mind, render assistance by their prayers 
that, because the clemency of the father, like that of spring, 
has conducted me in the summer heat of the flesh to a tiny 
flower of intelligence, it may at length lead me by mature 
works before the end of my course, when the vapours of 
concupiscence are exhausted, to the fruit of a good harvest. 
So that, when the reapers shall separate the tares of the 
enemy and fill the barns of the heavenly country with most 
carefully picked bundles, they may place me as a tiny sheaf 
of the latest harvest within the hall of the heavenly gate to 
behold God for ever, who is over all, God blessed for ever. 


68. Here begins the genealogy of Saint David, archbishop 
of all Britannia by the grace and predestination of God 


David was the son of Sant, Sant son of Cheritic, Cheretic 
son of Cuneda, Cuneda son of Etern, Etern son of Patern, 
Patern son of Peisrud, Peisrud son of Doeil, Doeil son of 
Gurdeil, Gurdeil son of Dumn, Dumn son of Guordumn, 
Guordumn son of Amguoil, Amguoil son of Amguerit, 
Amguerit son of Omid, Omid son of Perum, Perum son of 
Dobun, Dobun son of louguen, louguen son of Abalach, 
Abalach son of Eugen, Eugen son of Eudolen, -feudolen son 
of Eugen, Eugen son of Mary's sister. 
Here ends the Life of Saint David^ Bishop and Confessor. 


69. God, who didst fortell thy blessed confessor and 
pontiff, David, by the announcement of an angel to Patrick, 
prophesying thirty years before he was born, we beseech 
thee that by his intercession, whose memory we celebrate, 
we may come to the eternal joys, through [thy Son, our 
Lord, Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee in 
the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. 


70. Almighty God, be pleased to regard the sacrifices 
of praise and the devout prayers, which we offer to thee in 
honour of thy blessed confessor and pontiff, David ; and 
what our merit may not obtain, may thy mercy and his 
frequent intercession for us effect, through [thy Son, etc. 


71. O Lord, being replenished with the partaking of 
the Sacrament, we beseech thee that by the merits of 
Saint David, thy confessor and pontiff, whose glorious 
festival we do celebrate, we may be sensible of the patronage 
of thine ineffable mercy, through [thy Son, etc. Amen]. 


[I translate these passages from v. as printed in V.S.H., ii. 297-300, 
304. They are also printed, but very inaccurately, in C.B.S., 235-8, 
243. Plummer is certain that this Latin Life is from an Irish original.] 

ii. WHEN St. Aeddan wished to abandon his race and 
country, and go into exile, the king of his race, named 
Albus^ was unwilling to let him go. St. Aeddan said to 
him, " Let me go into exile, and I will give thee the king- 
dom of heaven." The king says to him, " Whence shall I 
know this, that thou wilt give me the kingdom of heaven ? " 
St. Aeddan answered, "Thou wilt receive the new tonsure 
from my hand, and thou shalt be till old age and death 
under the new tonsure." The king said, "What thou dost 
promise pleases me, if thou wilt bear with me till the time 
of tonsure, that we may see whether the hair grows again." 
And St. Aeddan bore with him till the time^. And so he 
let him go on pilgrimage. And that king ' remained till 
old age under the new tonsure. 

St. Aeddan came to the territories of the Leinster men. 
And desirous of reading the holy scriptures, he sailed over 
sea to,the districts of the Britons, and reading there at the 
monastery of St. David he remained a long time, and per- 
formed many miracles in that place. 

12. One day whilst Saint Aeddan sat reading there, the 
prior came to him, saying, " Rise and take a waggon that 
thou mayest accompany the brethren to carry necessary 
loads." And straightway the boy obeyed, rising quickly, 
and in his haste left the book open. And much rain falling 
did not hurt the book, until David himself came to the 



book. And the prior told the holy boy to lay hold of two 
untamed and savage oxen, but the oxen straightway became 
gentle and tame under the boy's hand. The prior also gave 
the boy a yoke without thongs, and the yoke adhered to 
;he necks of the oxen, as though it were securely tied with 
mongs. And the boy asked the prior for a cross-piece to 
join the waggon, that is, huili ar infeni. The prior says to 
him, "Put thy finger instead of the piece." And so the 
obedient boy did, yet his finger was not hurt. 

;A11 the workmen in consequence preceded Saint Aeddan 
whilst he tarried and a small boy with him. And the boy 
said to him, " It was ordered us to proceed on this journey." 
And Aeddan says to the small boy, " Make the' sign of the 
cross on thine eyes, and come after me." And they crossed 
thiough a marsh. The path remains to this day. And 
Aeddan a second time outstripped the workmen and their 
waggons. And that hour David went forth as far as the 
seashore with his community. And there he said to the 
holy boy, "Why didst thou leave the book open in the 
rain?" When the boy, Aeddan, heard this, he bent his 
knees, and prostrated himself in the presence of David. 
And he rose not until that the elder, David, should tell him. 
And " Rise " was not said to him. And the brethren came 
to their monastery, and the boy remained prostrate on the 
shore. Afterwards David inquired where the boy was? 
And the brethren said, " We have not seen him, save when 
we saw him prostrate on the shore." Then David sent his 
community to the shore, and they found the tide in, and 
the boy lying in the tide. And the sea was uplifted round 
about him. And they drew him into a ship with a cord. 

13. Also at another time the prior, moved with envy, 
meditated killing the holy boy, Aeddan. One day he sent 
the boy with another lay brother and a cart to bring timber 
from the woods. And the prior persuaded the lay brother 
to kill the boy in the woods. When, then, the oxen were 


yoked, the lay brother and the holy boy went into the 
woods. And when the boy was stooping there to shift the 
timber, the lay brother raised his axe to strike a blow on his 

head. But his hands, raised aloft, dried in the air. Then / 

the lay brother confessed his fault, and so through the/ 

prayer of the saint was free. This deed was revealed to 
Saint David, who straightway rose up quickly, and ran wittf 
a boot on one foot. Then the brethren, upset at seeing the 
elder walking without a boot, followed him. The holy boy 
came with the cart to the river, which is called Gladiiit. 
When David saw the boy coming, he stopped there, and 
said to the brethren, " Do not follow me." For Saint 
David saw innumerable troops of angels round about the 
boy as he came. When the boy saw from afar that Saint 
David was waiting for him, he came quickly through the 
river, and through rough ways, where no man walked before, 
in a straight line to the place where he saw David standing. 
And there a cross was erected, which stands to this day. 
When the brethren had returned home, David began to 
upbraid the prior. And the holy boy said, " It is not 
necessary for thee to upbraid him, for if thou upbraid him, 
he will soon die, and his sepulchre no one will know." 
And so it happened. 

14. Another day the holy boy, Aeddan, carried a 
"tribute" vessel, full of beer, to his monastery. When, 
then, he had reached a certain difficult road near a valley, 
the waggon together with the vessel and oxen fell into the 
valley. The holy boy made the sign of the cross on vessel 
and oxen, and not even one drop perished from the vessel 
till the waggon reached level ground in safety. 

15. One day the king's son, who was blind and lame 
and deaf, was brought to the holy boy, Aeddan. And 
whilst he prayed, he healed the king's son of every infirmity. 

1 6. Another day there was brought to him a man, 
having a tabulatam faciem, flat face, void of eyes and 


nostrils. And Aeddan blessed his face, and God gave 
him eyes and nostrils. 

17. Another time, too, the Saxons came to war against 
the Britons. Then the holy boy, when asked, went with 
the Britons to war. And immediately the Saxons saw him, 
they were put to flight. And the Britons pursued them 
seven days, but by the blessing of the holy boy, not even 
one man fell in that war. And as long as the holy boy, 
Aeddan, dwelt in the districts of the Britons with Saint 
David, the Saxons dared not come thither. 

1 8. Some robbers of the Saxons came into those 
districts of the Britons that they might injure anyone there, 
if they could. When Aeddan knew this, 'they were imme- 
diately blinded by his curses. And without hurting anyone 
or killing they returned back, and were blind through the 
whole year. 

A king of the Saxons came to prove him saying, "I am 
blind and deaf." Saint Aeddan answered him, "On the 
contrary thou art nor deaf nor blind, but as thou hast lied 
by tempting me, from this day thou shalt not be king; 
and to the day of thy death thou shalt remain blind and 
deaf." And so it was fulfilled. 

19. After these things Saint Aeddan with the blessing 
of the blessed David sailed to the island of Ireland, and he 
arrived at the districts of Fothart campi Itha. . . . 

20. . . . Saint Aeddan thought in his heart, saying, 
" It repents me that I did not ask of my teacher, Who in 
this island of Ireland shall be my amicus anime, soul- 
friend?" Then he arose to go over sea to Saint David. 
And when he was walking on the sea dry shod, even a 
third part of the journey, lo, an angel of God met him, 
saying, " Great assurance is in this thou hast done, to walk 
afoot on the sea." Aeddan answered him, "Not from 
assurance have I done it, but from strength of faith." And 
the angel said to him, " It is not necessary for thee to have 


a soul-friend, for God loves thee, and between thee and 
God there will be no middle person. And if thou wilt 
have a soul-friend, thou shalt have Molue mac Coche." 
Then Aeddan returned to Ireland. 

After these things Aeddan came into that district, which 
is called Ard Ladrand. And when he had settled there in 
the place, which is called Accel^ he considered that he had 
forgotten his bell in the land of the Britons. And when it 
was necessary for him to strike his bell at the regular hour, 
he straightway saw his bell placed at his side, for it had 
come from Britannia across the sea ; and rejoicing at its 
arrival, he gave thanks to God. 

32. At another time Saint David sent to Saint Aeddan 
to go to salute him. Aeddan straightway obeyed and went 
to the districts of the Britons. And when the time had 
come that he should return again, he said to Saint David, 
" How shall I go through the sea ? " The blessed David 
answered him, " Go to the sea, and whatever animal shall 
come to thee, mount it and proceed through the sea." 
Then Aeddan came to the sea in the land of the Britons, 
and saw a great animal like a great horse. Sitting on its 
shoulder he came over sea to Ireland to the place which 
is called Imber Cremthain^ and the animal returned into 
the sea. 


[Translated from s., col. 245.] 

IN those parts too St. Ailbe found in a certain church 
a priest standing before an altar, wishing to offer the 
sacrifice. But he could not, for his tongue was tied. Then 
Ailbe looking round at the people, who were in the church, 
saw among them a certain pregnant woman ; and he said 


to the priest, " The reason thou canst not offer is because 
this woman has in her womb a bishop. He is David of 
Cill Muni. For a priest ought not to celebrate in the 
presence of a bishop, except at his bidding." And when 
that woman was outside the church, straightway the priest 
offered with a loud voice. And all the people with one 
consent blessed Ailbe, who, by God's grace, had revealed 
this dark matter. But the father gave that son of his, 
David, to St. Ailbe for ever. 

[A different ending occurs in T ( V.S.H.^ i. 53) as follows.] 
. . . "The reason thou canst not speak is because God 
hath willed that the fame of the infant, which that woman 
has in her womb, should first be heard. For he shall be 
the elect of God, and a renowned bishop, and will be called 
David. This shalt thou have for a sign, when the people 
present shall have heard these words, thou shalt sing with 
a clear voice." When, then, the people had heard this 
prophecy, he sang the mass. And all the people with one 
consent blessed the blessed Ailbe, who by God's grace 
revealed this dark matter. Afterwards the son was born. 
His father gave him to St. Ailbe to bring him up to God. 
The same is David, a holy bishop, whose relics lie in the 
monastery of Chell Mum, which is in Britain. 


[This was written by Lifris or Lifricus, son of Bishop Herwald 
(d. 1104) of Llandaff (C.B.S., 80 ; B.LI., 271, 3-4). I translate from 
the Latin as printed in C.J3.S., 39-40, 44, which I have collated with v.] 

How St. David at an angePs direction assembled a Synod. 

IN that time, wherein these things were being accom- 
plished (or done), St. David, a true confessor of God and 
a bishop, shone with great virtues in Britannia, to whom an 


angel was sent by God, saying to him, " Rise, do not tarry, 
assemble all the clergy, elders, and the better born, and 
form a synod." The blessed David answers him, "I am 
ready at thy bidding to do whatever shall be well-pleasing 
to the Lord, were I worthy, but there dwells in Glywysing 
one named Cadog, sprung from the satraps of Britannia, 
who is much more worthy by birth than myself, more 
distinguished for sanctity, wiser in understanding, and more 
skilful in speech for assembling- a synod, without whose 
leave and support I least of all presume to undertake so 
large a matter." To whom the angel, " Nay, fulfil my 
commands, and fear him not in the least for in this affair 
he will in no way thwart thee, since he will straightway go 
abroad." The rest truly is accomplished (or done) in both 
instances according to the angelic discourse. Cadog went 
on a journey, and David after his departure assembled a 
synod in the monastery of Brevi. 

Of the indulgence shown to St. David for summoning the 


When certain disciples of the blessed [Cadog] were 
gathered together, they said to each other in turn, " Who 
of us will dare to disclose to our master what thing's were 
done by St. David in Britannia, whilst he was on pil- 
grimage ? " To this all were silent, nor presumed anyone 
to mention the matter to him. Therefore they cast lots 
on this affair, and the lot fell on Finnian. Therefore 
St. Finnian rose from the midst of the brethren, and went 
forward with great trepidation. He prostrates himself in 
the footsteps of the man of God, devoutly beseeching that 
he should not be angry with him. And he insinuated how 
that a universal synod had been assembled by St. David, 
whilst he was travelling abroad. Which thing displeased 
him not a little, and he was incensed with great anger 


against St. David for such an affront, and continued fasting 
a day and night. The same night, too, an angel of the 
Lord came to him, speaking in words of this kind, "I 
beseech thee not to be angry against thy brother, for as it 
is written in the Epistle of John, He who hates his brother 
is a murderer." By the angelic intervention in this matter 
he quite forgave the blessed David his fault. Wherefore 
the angel added, "Because thou hast obeyed my voice, 
and at my request hast pardoned him who did thee wrong, 
the Lord thy God will free thy castle full of the souls of 
men, three times, in the Day of Judgment from eternal 
penalties. And as many tufts or hairs as are joined 
together in thy cowl (as is commonly called a certain kind 
of garment, which the Irish use out of doors, full of shaggy 
hair or tufts in modum dntum\ so many persons shall be 
snatched for thy sake from perpetual penalties. Also every 
Saturday from this night for ever, let one soul be freed from 
infernal torments for thy love, and all your familiar friends, 
who shall have died in this place, will be liberated from the 
sufferings of hell. Moreover, whatsoever thou shalt ask of 
the Lord, thou shalt obtain." Then the blessed Cadog 
rejoiced in his fort, and rose up, and recounting the angelic 
promises to his disciples, exclaimed, " Praise ye the Lord, 
ye servants of his, praise the name of the Lord, for his 
mercy is confirmed upon us, and the truth of the Lord 
remains for ever." 


[In one place only in Wales did John of Tynemouth (c. 1290-1350 
see a Life of this saint, probably at Llangynnydd in Gower, Glamorgan 
shire. He was only able to copy a little as it was illegible with age. 
St. Cynnydd was a cripple. I translate from N.L.A., ii. 108-9.] 

ST. DAVID, Teilo, and Padarn, journeying for the 
consolation of the brethren, came to the man of God 


(Cynnydd), who, rejoicing at their arrival, received them 
kindly and ministered the benefits of hospitality as to 
reverend fathers. The blessed David had announced that 
there was to be a general synod, and humbly took care 
to invite St. Cynnydd there. The latter says, " I, having 
merited crooked limbs, and being unworthy of companion- 
ship, am more unworthy to associate with such great men ; 
and, moreover, natural power to proceed on such a journey 
is lacking to me." St. David says, " Let us pray to Jesus 
Christ that He may think fit to straighten thy limbs to 
accompany us on our journey." And a prayer being poured 
out to God, his calf is loosened from his thigh, as the 
natural arrangement should be. And when, ready to start 
on their way, they were all proceeding forward, Cynnydd, 
the servant of God, pouring out a prayer in the secrets 
of his heart, attached his calf to his thigh as before. Then 
St. David, the bishop, said, "Why dost thou despise our 
fellowship, seeing that we rejoice in thy society ? Why 
dost thou leave us, pious father, who are anxious in thy 
absence, seeing we can relieve the burden of our cares 
in thy presence ? " And when they had mutually saluted, 
the bishops departed, and he returned to his own monastery. 


[This portion of a section is translated from T ( V.S.H., ii. 41). " St. 
Declan is exclusively a saint of the Munster Deisi, and his labours are 
mainly confined to them and the adjacent parts of Munster. . . . The 
tradition of a special connexion between Ardmore and St. David's 
( 15) probably rests on fact, for the latitude of the two places is 
almost exactly the same" (*., I. lxi-ii).] 

15. THE people say that Saint Declan visited Rome 
many times, but in old writings we have not found that he 
did so more than thrice. Whilst he was returning on one 


of these occasions, he came to a holy bishop of the Britons, 
named David, remaining in his monastery of Chell Muny^ 
which is on the shore of the sea that divides Ireland and 
Britannia, and was received there honourably. And Saint 
Declan remained there at the request of Saint David in 
all charity for forty days, celebrating mass every day. 
These two pontiffs, to wit, Declan and David, confirmed 
for ever in Christ's name the brotherhood between them- 
selves and their followers. And after forty days, with the 
blessing and permission of the most holy Bishop David and 
his brethren, the blessed father Declan and his followers 
with the kiss of peace took ship, and began to sail to 
Ireland. ... 



[This translation is by Whitely Stokes from the Irish of the Book oj 
Lismore (Oxford, 1890). The Irish dates from the latter half of the 
fifteenth century, and is taken from older and lost originals.] 

2527. Now when [Findian] reached the age of thirty, he 
went over sea. He came to [Dairinis, an island in Wexford 
Haven]. There he found before him an elder named 
Caeman. They were for a time together, and they made a 
union. After that Findian came to Cell Muine. There he 
found before him three sages, named David, and Gildas, 
and Cathmael. This was the cause of their being gathered 
together there a contention for the headships and abbacy 
of the island of Britain between two of them, that is, 
between David and Gildas. They agreed that Cathmael 
should be arbitrator between them. Now when Cathmael 
beheld Saint Findian, he looked at him meditatively. 
" What is that great attention," saith David to Cathmael, 


" that them bestowest on the unknown youth that is gone 
into the house ? " 

" Great grace," said Cathmael, " I perceive upon him." 

" If," saith David, "there is grace upon him, let him now 
speak in the British tongue, and let him decide the cause 
in which we are engaged." 

Findian made the sign of the cross over his mouth, and 
he spake in British, as if it had been his mother-tongue, 
and he awarded the island to David because of his 

2540. Then went Findian and Catmael and David and 
Gildas to parley with the king, (and) to ask him for the site 
of a church. He said that he had none. Howbeit a certain 
man in the house said boldly, " If the clerics like," saith he, 
"let them put this great lake away from the side of the 
fortress, and let them build their church in its place." " If 
they do that," saith the king, "they shall have even this 
stronghold beside the place of the lake." Howbeit Findian 
went with a torch in his hand, and he dipped it into the 
lake, and the lake fled before him into the sea ; and God's 
name and Findian's were magnified by that great miracle. 
So those lands were offered to God and Findian. He gave 
them to the British elders, who were along with him. 
Three monasteries were founded by them thereon. Of 
these is Lann Gabran to-day. 

2550. Now Findian was for thirty years studying 
together with the British elders, who were along with him. 


[I translate from s, cols. 191, 192.] 

4. HERE he completed the thirtieth year of his age, 
when he resolved to go across the sea. Bidding farewell to 


his master, he started on his journey, desiring first to visit 
an elder named Cayman, with whom he sojourned awhile 
for the sake of learning. This elder was living in an island 
which is called Dayrineanis [an island in Wexford Haven]. 
From there he went across the sea with merchants, but 
their object was different, for he purposed to trade in the 
affairs of the kingdom of heaven, but they in temporal gain. 
When they had landed at the civitas Kellmunnensis^ the 
monastery of St. Davids, in Britain, Saint Finnian found 
there three holy men, to wit, Saint David, and Saint 
Cathmael \i. e. Cadog], and Saint Gildas. As Finnian drew 
near to the place, where the elders were,; he blessed them. 
Then Cathmael looked diligently at the youth. " Where- 
fore," says David, "dost thou look at the young stranger, 
blooming with the grace of the true God ? " And Cathmael 
says, " The reason I look so diligently at him is, because 
the grace of God glows in him." And David says, "He 
speaks the language of our race fluently, as though he were 
a native." 

5. When the elders had welcomed the arrival of such 
a guest, they retired and came to a certain powerful man. 
When they had asked of him a small place to dwell in, he 
replied, " I have no such place at hand." One of his house- 
hold adds, " If they desire a place to dwell in, let us concede 
this great mere, which is near them." For there was close 
by a great lake, on the shore of which was a fortress, wherein 
kings were wont to dwell. Cathmael says again, " Not only 
will this extensive lake be given to them, but also the fortress 
will be gifted to them." After this Finnian says to Cath- 
mael, "Allow me to approach the mere and say to it, 
Withdraw from these bounds in the name of the Lord." 
Cathmael is said to have replied, " If this contradicts not 
the counsel of God, you certainly have permission." The 
holy youth, Finnian, approached the shore of the lake with 
fire, and in the name of the Holy Trinity he. put its waters 


to flight as far as the sea. And there afterwards many 
monasteries were built, of which one is called in the Welsh 
language Melboc^ and another Nont^ and so forth. 


[This Life by Caradog, who was a contemporary of Geoffrey or 
Monmouth (H.R.B., xii. 20), is much inferior in value to the older 
Breton Life. Both will be found in C.M. 91-110, from which I 

[GILDAS] used to preach every Lord's Day at a church by 
the sea, which stands in the region of Pepidiauc in the time 
of King Trifin^ a countless multitude of people listening to 
him. Whilst he was beginning to preach, the sound of the 
preaching was checked in the act, for which reason the 
congregation was very astonished at the strange interruption. 
Saint Gildas, discovering this, ordered all who were standing 
by to go out, that he might be able to know whether the 
interruption of the divine discourse was due to one of them. 
And not even after their exit could he preach. He then 
asked if any man or woman was hiding in the church. 
There answers him the pregnant Nonnita, who was about to 
be the mother of a most holy boy, Dewi, " I, Nonnita, 
remain here between the wall and the door, unwilling to 
join the crowd." Having heard this, he ordered her to go 
out; and after she had gone he called the people, who, 
when summoned, came to hear the preaching of the gospel. 
After the end of the sermon, he asked an angel of God 
about the aforesaid incident, to wit, why he had begun ^ 
to preach and had not been able to finish. And he 3 
revealed to him in such words as these : " Nonnita, a holy 
woman, remains in the church, who is now pregnant and is 
with great grace about to give birth to a boy, before whom 


thou couldst not preach, for divine power hindered thy 
discourse." [Then Gildas said to the people,] " Of greater 
grace will be a boy who is about to come. None in your 
parts will equal him. This district I will leave to him. 
He will speedily grow and flourish from age to age. For 
an angel messenger of God has declared this to me as my 
true destiny." Whence it happened that? the most holy 
preacher, Gildas, crossed over to Ireland, where he converted 
countless people to the Catholic faith. 


[I translate from the Latin as printed in C.jB.S., 167, 175, corrected 
for me by Mr. Uris Bell from v.] 

VERY many scholars flowed to him [Illtud], of the num- 
ber of whom these four, to wit, Samson, Paulinus, Gildas 
and Dewi (i.e. David), studied with him, being wisely 
erudite, and others, very many, like them. 

Whilst such things and many others were being said, a 
certain wayfarer passed by, who was a messenger of Gildas 
the historian, carrying a brazen bell made by the same 
Gildas, to be given as a present to the holy pontiff, Dewi, 
in memory of past fellowship and love. And as he passed 
by the cave which was near the public road, the bell sounded, 
being moved without human agency. Saint Illtud, hearing 
the sweet sound, came to the person who was carrying it, 
and being pleased with its very delightful melodiousness he 
moved it three times, asking the man where he was going 
or whither he carried that beautiful thing, superior to gold? 
He answered and said, " I go and I carry this bell to Saint 
Dewi by order of the renowned Gildas." These things 
being said, he withdrew and came to Meneuensem 


the Mynyw Valley, presenting the pontiff with such a gift. 
Being presented with the bell, he moved it ; it rendered no 
sound with the motion. The pontiff, wondering at that 
marvel, asked the messenger if it had been moved or tested 
by anyone along the way during his messengership. He 
being asked told him as had happened above, and the 
bishop believed it to be truly told, saying, "I know that 
our master, Illtud, wished to possess it for the sweetness of 
its sound, but he was unwilling to ask for it, hearing it was 
to be sent to me by the donor, Gildas. God does not wish 
that I should have this. Return without delay to the cave, 
and restore to Saint Illtud the thing meant for him which 
he desired." The messenger returned to Illtud and did 
the pontifical command, leaving there the lonely occupant, 
were it not for the frequent visitation of angels. 


[John of Tynemouth (d. 1350) probably copied and condensed this 
life from one at St. Davids. I translate from N.L.A., ii. 93-95.] 

SAINT JUSTINAN drew his origin from a most noble stock 
of Lesser Britain [i.e. Brittany]. Given to literature from 
childhood, he shone owing to his wonderful learning 
among the most renowned doctors of his nation. Having 
received the order of priesthood, he faithfully discharged 
his sacred duty, and at length merited having a divine 
message as follows, " Go forth from thy country and from 
thy kindred and from thy father's house." 

When the holy man understood this, he joined to himself 
certain companions, and entered a vessel of woven osiers and 
hides, praying continually to God that he might convey 
him to a land where he could lead a solitary life. And at 
length he touched a country called Chorineum^ where for 


some time he sojourned, and where many began to abandon 
the world after his example, and to hasten to the holy man 
for instruction. 

But soon, as it had been commanded him at first by God 
to leave his country and his kindred, so for the second time 
it was told him to leave that abode. Then entering a skiff 
and committing himself to the sea and to the winds, he came 
to the island, which at that time was called Limeneia, where 
a man devoted to God, Honorius, son of King Thefriaucus, 
having abandoned the things of this world, was giving him- 
self entirely to God. Being received therefore with kindly 
hospitality, he increased in such ardour of devotion, that 
[Honorius] would hand over to the holy man his place and 
abode, that he might devote himself to gaining souls for 
Christ without any inconvenience. The blessed Justinan, 
seeing that the place was fitted for the religious life and was 
remote from all worldly chatter, said, "I would assent to 
thy request, if thy sister with her handmaid had a bed 
far away from us," which by some incredulous ones was 
derisively laughed at. But since the eloquence and charm 
of his holy preaching, and the glory of so great a reputation 
pleased the blessed man, he said, "Holy father, in order 
that I may enjoy thy sweet and honourable society, I will 
send away my sister to another country." So the sister of 
the blessed Honorius, having received the blessing and con- 
sent of the holy men, went away to far-off regions. And in 
that place, when very many had come together to him, being 
illuminated by the word of faith, they returned with the 
salvation of their souls. 

When the fame of so great a man had reached the blessed 
David, he was overjoyed at the rare arrival of so great a 
man, and, calling for him through messengers, humbly 
entreated that [Justinan] would honour him by paying him 
a visit. It pleased both the blessed David and Saint 
Justinan to be supported by each other's fellowship and 


prayers. And Saint David took him to be his confessor/ 
and to be after God the guardian of his life. And what 
cells he chose both in the island and outside the island, he 
granted to him and to the brethren who flowed together 
unto him. 

One day whilst he was given to praying and reading, five 
men arrived sailing in a fast sailer, and hurrying to him said, 
" Lo, he whom thou lovest is sick. He bids thee to hasten 
to him without any delay." When [Justinan] heard of the 
sickness of him, who was his friend in Christ, he hastened 
to the fast sailing skiff, and began to chant psalms. When 
he had come by rowing to the middle of the sea, then at 
length lifting up his face, he perceived that they were uglier 
than people whom he had been wont to see, and he observed 
plainly that they were evil spirits. Then with hands and 
eyes lifted up to heaven, he began the 79th Psalm, to wit, 
"Haste Thee, O God, to deliver me." And when he was 
chanting the second verse of that psalm, "Let them be 
ashamed and confounded that seek after my soul," they 
vanished and flew away like black crows. Relying so on 
God's help he was carried to land on a rock, which rose by 
divine power from the depth of the sea, and found Saint 
David, 'whom the evil spirits asserted to be sick, safe and 

The enemy of the human race, seeing therefore that he 
was overcome by the holy man, and that neither could he 
prevail by trying him with frequent assaults, nor could 
he separate him from the service of God by evil suggestions, 
devised other means of his crafty art, and poured his poison 
into the three servants of the holy man. The servants, 
then, seized by madness, not only despised the salutary 
admonitions of their master wherewith he used to exhort 
them so to employ their labour as not to live an idle life, 
but rushed at him and threw him on the earth, without fear- 
ing cruelly to cut off his head, On the spot where his sacred 


head fell to the ground, a copious fountain of clearest water 
emanated forthwith in abundance from the rock, whose 
stream, quaffed by sick folk, conveys health of body to all. 

One named Jonas, having poison administered to him in 
a drink of milk, found his belly marvellously swollen. 
When he had partaken of that water, he straightway threw 
up a live frog, and all the swelling of his belly disappeared. 

Those sons of iniquity, after the deed of iniquity com- 
mitted by them, perceived that they were struck by leprosy, 
and that divine vengeance had been manifestly directed 
against them. Having gone from that place with groaning 
and weeping, they arrived together at a certain rock, which to 
this day is called " the Rock of the Lepers." Afterwards, 
mourning there and torturing their bodies with heavy afflic- 
tions, and beating them with many stripes, in grief and 
hardship as long as they lived, they ended their existence in 
greatest penitence, and deserved to obtain pardon for their 
sins by the merits of Saint Justinan. 

Greater marvels followed great ones. For the body of 
the blessed martyr, deprived of its head, rose in that place, 
and bearing the head between its arms, descended to the 
sea-shore ; and walking on the sea, went over to the creek 
called by his name ; and in the place, where now stands a 
church dedicated to his honour, falling on the ground, lay 
there, and at that spot he deserved to be buried. 

In the same church, where the holy martyr's body lies, 
our Saviour has seen well to exhibit many miracles. Sick 
people going there, detained by any kind of sickness, return 
home safe and sound, full of thanksgiving to God. 

The holy bishop, David, not unaware of the suffering of 
his friend, and the full issue of the matter, warned by divine 
revelation, with his brethren carried the sacred body with 
hymns and chants to the Church of Mynyw, and placed it 
honourably in a new sarcophagus, 



[This opening of a section I translate from the Life in M (V.S.H., 
u. 219). Molua is a hypocoristic form of Lugaid. His sphere of 
influence was partly Munster and partly Ossory.] 

38. THE most blessed archbishop of the Leinstermen, 
Moedhog (Y. e. St. Aeddan of Ferns], wished to cross the sea 
to Britannia to his holy master, the bishop David, to ask him 
whom he should have in Ireland as his patrem confessionis^ 
father confessor. And an angel of the Lord came to him, 
saying, " Do not cross the sea, for almighty God knows that 
thy confession is holy and pure. Yet go thou to Saint 
Molua, son of Coche, and let him be thy father confessor, 
unless thou wiliest otherwise." Afterwards the holy arch- 
bishop Moedhog came to Saint Molua, and was received 
honourably by him. . . . 


[I translate from the Latin as printed iri C.B.S., 192-3, 196-7, 
corrected for me by Mr. H. Idris Bell from v.] 

" A HEAVENLY messenger comes to Saint David, who was 
serving the God Christ in Vallis Rosina, and says to him, 
* Rise, and go to Jerusalem, that thou mayest be ordained 
there. Join to thee two worthy comrades, who likewise will 
be ordained, that is, Padarn and Teilo.' Thereupon David 
sent to them. They came without delay. They proceeded 
together through foreign nations, receiving the gift of 
languages, for though they were men of one language, they 
addressed each person in his own language wherein he was 
born. At length they arrived at Jerusalem, and there they 


preach in the noblest fashion after the manner of the apostles. 
Afterwards the three saints were ordained bishops by the 
imposition of the Patriarch's hand. Then they were pre- 
sented with gifts. Padarn was presented with a double 
present, to wit, a Bachall and a Tunic woven throughout. 
They returned happily. They divided Britannia into their 
three episcopacies, had not the wickedness of tyrants after- 
wards disturbed them." 

"The Patriarch of Jerusalem being present, the three 
southern kingdoms of the Britons succeeded under three 
episcopacies of three saints : the kingdom of Seisyll [/. e. 
Seisyllwg] received the consecration of; churches, and the 
imposition of ecclesiastical orders, and the confirmation of 
episcopal baptism, and the chrismal oil, and all episcopal 
duties from the episcopacy of Saint Padarn ; the kingdom of 
Rhain [i.e. Rheinwg] received these aforesaid rights from 
the episcopacy of Saint David ; and the kingdom of Morgan 
[i.e. Morgannwg] received episcopal duties from Saint Eiludd 
\i.e. Teilo]. Therefore the third episcopal locus, monastery, 
among the southern Britons is the monastery of the bishop, 
Saint Padarn." 


[This was written * c by Master Geoffrey, that is, Stephen, brother 
of Urban, bishop of the Church of Llandaff" (B.Ll. t 360, col. i.). 
Geoffrey is clearly called Stephen to distinguish him from the more 
famous Geoffrey Arthur. As Bishop Urban died in 1133, Geoffrey 
Stephen was flourishing in the early twelfth century. I translate the 
following from Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans' superb reproduction of 
The Text of the Book of Llan Ddv, Oxford, 1893, pp. 99-101, 114-5.] 

THEN having heard of the fame of a certain learned man, 
Poulinus, [Saint Teilo] went to him and abode with him 
for some time. If there were any scriptural obscurities 


hidden from him before, they saw all things made reason- 
ably clear by mutual conference. And there he had Saint 
David as companion, a man of most perfect life. Such 
great love joined them together with the grace of the Holy 
Spirit, that in their transactions their likes and dislikes were 

Now in the days of these saints, certain peoples, who 
either from their painted clothes or from their eye-marks 
were called Picts, came in a number of ships to Britannia 
from Scythia, and desirous of possessing the land on 
account of the supply of good things, wherein at that time 
it excelled all islands, they attacked the Britons more by 
treachery than by force, and for a while exercised extra- 
ordinary tyranny over them. Nor is it a wonder that the 
Britons were overcome by them, for the Pictish nation was 
crafty and trained in many engagements by sea and land, 
whereas the Britons, although enidowed with strength of 
body, were artless and peaceful, and, not having hitherto 
been assailed by anyone, were, so to speak, ignorant of 
warfare, so that they could the more easily be brought 
under. If anyone from this wishes to know more fully 01 
the matter, he will find it in the history of Gildas, the 
historian of the Britons [see pp. 73-74 below]. 

When a certain prince of that execrable race (they had 
landed from their skiffs), after butchering the wretched 
inhabitants and burning houses and temples of saints, had 
proceeded as far as minuensem ciuitatem, the monastery of 
Mynyw, he there remained, and there he built his palatium, 
chief stronghold. When he saw the uprightness of the life 
of Saint Teilo, David and the other servants of God who 
lived with them in the same place, he not only envied them, 
as is ever the wont of the -wicked to envy the good, but 
also, seeing them so intent on the service of God, frequently 
said many shameful things to them, that so he might 


separate them from Christ. But as he could not effect his 
designs by threats and low talk, having tried to seduce 
them by many devices, he saw he could not accomplish 
his purpose in any way more aptly than by feminine allure- 
ments. So he bade his wife to send her female attendants 
to the saints, and to offer themselves to the passions of the 
saints, that by the silly motions of their bodies and by 
meretricious charms they might try to turn the minds of the 
saints from their saintly purpose. While they were carrying 
out the commands of their mistress and feigning, as it were, 
to be mad, they became mad. For as it is truly said, He 
who is filthy deserves to become more filthy [Rev. xxii. 1 1]. 
When this was seen, the aforesaid persecutor and all his 
house by the grace of the servants of God received the 
Catholic faith, and were baptized by them in the name 
of Christ. 

\B.LL, 102, 103-107, give the story of David finding the book left 
by Teilo and Maeddog uninjured by the rain, and a long-drawn account 
of the journey of Teilo, Padarn, and David to Jerusalem to the greater 
glory of Teilo.] 

After these things the holy man [Teilo] sought again his 
episcopal see [of Llandaff], accompanied by a supply of 
clergy and people, and he dwelt there to the end of his life, 
holding supremacy over all the churches of the whole of 
"Dextral Britannia" [i.e. Deheubarth] according to the 
instruction of the fathers, who had consecrated him at 
Jerusalem, as aforesaid. But the race very rapidly in- 
creased from ever so few to a great multitude ; and this no 
doubt happened, because it now became obedient to every 
ordinance of the saint. Thus, holy Church, which for a 
long time had been dispersed, was restored by the inter- 
vention of Teilo, the most 1 holy of the saints. To him 
disciples gathered together, who had been disciples of the 


blessed Dubricius, to wit, lunapeius, Grurmaet, Toulidauc^ 
luhil) Fidelity Hismael^ Tyfhei^ Oudoceus^ and many other 
disciples, that they might copy him in morals and doctrine. 
Of these he consecrated Hismael to be bishop, and sent 
him to take charge of aecdesiam minucnsem^ the Church 
of Mynyw, which was now deprived of its pastor. For 
Saint David had migrated to the Lord. 


Rubric. Dewi for Dewid (modern Dewidd) from Davzd-us ; final 
dd is dropped in the Welsh dialects of Pembrokeshire, as newt, new 
(newydd), danne, teeth (dannedd), etc. In the Cambridge Univ. Lib. 
MS. Ff. i, 27, 28 (c. 1300), Dewid actually occurs (Hardy's Des. Cat. 
Rolls S., 1862, i. 118). In post-Norman times the Welsh again 
borrowed David-v&, and produced Davydd, Davz, Dai. 

A later hand has written Dewi dyfyrwr, D. the Waterman, for 
which see 2, 42. 

i. Thirty years. Many instances occur <of a habit among the 
Britons of dating events from incidents in their own history or bearing 
thereon, even fictitious incidents. Thus the author of De excidio 
Britannia, 26, tells us that he is writing his little book in the forty- 
fourth year after the battle of the Badonic Hill. And he implies (23) 
that this victory was won, when a clear century and a half had elapsed 
since the advent of the Saxons into Britannia (C.Af. 40, 38). For other 
examples see Y C., xxvii. 26-36. The most remarkable is that of the 
old Latin Welsh Chi onicle (now dubbed Annales Cambrice) in the 
B.M. Harleian 3859, in which all the annals for five centuries are 
reckoned from A.D. 444, the year I being A.D. 445 (Y C., ix. 152). 
The thirty years' interval between Bishop Patrick's arrival in Ireland 
and the birth, of St. David is alluded to in the first life of St. Carannog, 
2. Here we are told that Carannog, Dewi's uncle, followed Patrick 
to Ireland. From the second life of the same saint we learn he had 
refused to accept the military leadership of Ceredigion after his father, 
Ceredig, preferring the religious life instead. It was a serious matter, 
for the Irish at the time were invading Britannia. It is evident, there- 
fore, that Dewi's birth is calculated from two events in British history, 
one ecclesiastical and one military, which synchronized, i.e. Bishop 
Patrick's arrival in Ireland and an Irish attack on Britannia (C.B.S., 
97101). Now Bury (331) says that "the chronological framework 
of Patrick's life is determined by two certain dates : the year of his 
coming to Ireland (as bishop), which rests upon clear and unvarying 
tradition, A.D. 432, and the year of his death, A.D. 461." It follows 
from this that St. David was born in A.D. 462. 

Patrick, a Briton, son of Calpurnius, deacon, and grandson of Potitus, 
priest, born at the village of " Banavem Tabernise " (not yet identified), 
in western Britain, near the sea, c . 389 ; taken captive to Ireland 
c. 405, where he toiled as a slave, at Slemish in Ulster ; escaped to 
the Continent c. 41 1 ; lived awhile in the newly established monastery 
on the island of Lerins in the Mediterranean Sea ; ordained deacon, 
probably by Bishop Amator of Auxerre, c. 418, and afterwards priest 



by Bishop Germanus of the same see. When Germanus and Lupus 
visited Britain in 429, the question of Christian Ireland was, or became, 
prominent, in which Patrick was intensely interested. In 431 Pope 
Celestine consecrated Palladius to be Bishop in Ireland, who, dying 
after a short time, was succeeded by Patrick in the teeth of much 
opposition. It was Germanus who probably consecrated him, in 432. 
The Church had already taken root in the south of the island, for 
which reason Patrick soon went north and west to convert the Irish 
heathen. He proved one of the greatest of missionaries. He died, 
fearing his work was a failure, March 17, 461. 

2. Sattt, Welsh for Sanctus, "saint," a well-known Christian 
name, borne, for example, by a deacon of Vienne, who suffered 
martyrdom at Lyons in the second century. Cognate forms are 
Sanctianus (a saint at Sens), and Sanctanus, which is said to have 
yielded the Sannan of Llan Sannan (Lloyd, 150). That Sant was 
Dewi's father is attested by all the evidence known to me. In B. y S. 
(a) and (b), Sant is affiliated to Cedig, son of Ceredig, which Cedig is 
given as father of St. Avan of Buell (in P.K.}. But the latter and all 
other old and reliable sources make Dewi to be son of Sant, son of 
Ceredig, son of Cunedda Wledig ( 68). Sant's mother was Meleri, 
daughter of Brychan, who gave his name to Brycheiniog, "Brecon," 
the land of Brychan ( Y C. } xix. 26). That Sant was so by merit as 
well as by name is shown by the existence of at least one church of his, 
Lezant in Cornwall, which lies between two foundations of St. Non, 
Bradstone and Altarnun, and has a Landue, perhaps "the Han of 
Dewi," within its parochial bounds. Prince Sant became St. Sant. 

Ccredigion> " the land of Ceredig," son of Cunedda, and grandfather 
of St. David. The word is from Carattciana (Lloyd, 119). It was 
normally co-extensive with modern Cardiganshire, and continued to be 
governed by its own line of kings for some four to five centuries, whose 
names have been preserved ( Y C., ix. 180-1). See note to 14. 

Teivi, the river which bounds Ceredigion to the south, and enters the 
sea at Cardigan, in Welsh Aberteivi. 

Llyn Henllan, " the Pool of Henllan." The Latin has Unhenlanu, 
doubtless for lin henlann. Henllan, ' ' old monastery, " is on the Teivi ; 
its church is St. David's. 

Maucanmts. It would seem that normally this name should yield 
Mawgan in modern Welsh. In Cornwall are two parish churches 
called St. Mawgan, and there is some slight evidence, but hardly 
convincing, that Porth Mawr or Whitesand Bay, near St. David's, was 
once called Porth Mawgan. In 3 below, St. Patrick is made to 
leave Wales at Porth Mawr, but in one of the paintings, done in l676, 
on the ceiling of the Church of St. Divy-la-Foret, near Landerneau, in 
Finistere, Brittany, a French inscription states that Patrick embarked 
at Port Maugan, and the picture of a town by the sea is called Portus 
Mattgan (L.B.S., ii. 320-1). As these names could hardly have been 
invented for the occasion, one assumes that the people responsible for 
the pictures used some original now lost to us. There is a creek to the 
N.W. of Porth Mawr, marked Porth Melgan on the ordnance maps, 
but locally called Porth Milgan, which can hardly be a corruption of 

NOTES, 2 59 

P. Mawgan. Like local " Sisneg" from Saesneg through "Seisneg," 
so " Milgan " may be from Maelgan through "Meilgan." There can 
be no doubt that Maticannus was a real name, borne, for example, by 
a sixth-century king of Powys, Maucann or Maucant, son of Pascent 
(Y C., ix. 179, 181) ; it appears also, strangely, in a list of Roman 
emperors, where it seems to be a bungle for Macrinus (ib., 177)- 1 
the Life of St. Cadog (C.&.S., 94) a holy man called Moncan and 
Maucan intervenes in a dispute between the saint and Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, from which it would seem as though two distinct names 
were being confused, namely, Maucan, which yields Mawgan, and 
Moucan, which gives Meugan. It is certainly reu.arkable that, whereas 
we find Mawgan, but not Meugan, in Cornish place-names, it is the 
reverse in Wales, where we find many places called after Meugan, but 
none apparently after Mawgan. There is a very familiar Welsh saint, 
Meugan, of whom, however, little or nothing is known, commemorated, 
or formerly so, in the four corners of Wales : in the N.W. in Anglesey 
at Capel Meugan, under Llandegvan ; in the N.E. in Denbighshire at 
Llanrhudd, otherwise Llanveugan, the mother : church of Ruthin ; in 
the S.E. iu Breconshire at Llanveugan ; and in the S.W. in Carmar- 
thenshire at Capel Meugan, near Cilymaenllwyd(Lhwyd's Parochialia, 
iii. 65), and especially in Cemes, N. Pembrokeshire, at Llanveugan 
in or near Bridell. Whether the Mawgan, or Meugan, of Irish 
hagiology was the same man remains to be seen. In the Life of St. 
Enda, 6, he is called tMaucen, the master of the monastery of Rosnat 
or Whithern on Wigton Bay, the Candida Casa, "white house" of 
Bede (H.E., iii. 4) ; whilst in 20 he is called Monend, " my Nennius," 
for it appears from s. -col. 915, that he was also known as Nennyo 
( V.S.ff., I. Ixiii. n. 3, etc.). This is the same name as Nynias, whom 
Bede (I.e.) extols as an early fifth-century British missionary in S. 
Scotland. That Maucan, or Moucant, was an important personage 
in the early history of the Church in Wales is also shown by the use 
of the name by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who in his historical romance 
(H.R.B., vi. 18) makes Maugantius to be a kind of learned druid, 
whom Vortigern consulted on dark sayings ; and later (ix. 15) makes 
Maugatmts to be raised by Arthur to the see of Silchester. 

Monastery of Maticannus. From what has just been said, this 
should normally be in modern Welsh a name compounded of llan and 
Mawgatty which is not known to exist. If the personal name stands, 
or has been made to stand, for Mottgan, later Metigan> the monastery 
should now be known as Llan Veugan. Such a name survives in or 
near Bridell in Cemes, N. Pembrokeshire, accompanied by Pistyll 
Meugan (his Spout), Cwm Meugan (his Dingle), and Dyffryn Meugan 
(his Glen), all less than three miles S. of the river Teivi. It was 
once celebrated as "St. Meugan's in Kernes." A great fair to the 
saint's honour, called Ffair Veugan, was and is held at Eglwyswrw 
close by (it seems to have been once held at St. Meugan's itself) on the 
Monday after Martinmas (Old Style) ; a similar fair was held at St. 
Dogmaels, another neighbouring parish (O's P., i. 100, 143). For the 
utter demolition of St. Meugans in 1592 by order of the Privy Council, 
see O's /"., i. 271-2. 


Monastery of the Deposit. This was another name for the "Mona- 
stery of Maucannus," which I conjecture to have been Llan Veugan in 
or near Bridell. And I submit that the name "Monastery of the 
Deposit" is now represented by Bridell, for an older " Llan Bridell." 

If we suppose that the identity of Monasterium Depositi was for- 
gotten, it would be very natural for a Welsh writer of the twelfth 
century to think that it stood for " Llan Adneu," inasmuch as " adneu " 
was at that time a regular and familiar term in Welsh law for " deposit " 
(<?.. W.M.L. 118). This name, "Llan Adneu," actually occurs in 
Gwynvardd's poem to Dewi in the list which he gives of twenty 
churches "owned" by the Saint (Y G., 82). As no such place as 
" Llan Adneu" is known to exist, the next step would be to identify it 
with some place bearing a name of more or less similar sound. Such 
a place would be Llan Arthneu (which in the B.LL, 279, is "Ian 
hardneu"), some seven miles E. of Carmarthen; and the identification 
is made by Rice Rees in his Essay ', 51, and by Lloyd (158, n. 165), 
who thinks that "Llan Adneu" was a current erroneous derivation 
from Llan Arthneu. But Llan Arthneu does not seem to have ever 
been associated with Maucannus, as Rhygyvarch's datum demands. 
Another guess would be Laney, as the place is locally called, hi a 
detached portion of Llanrheithan parish, near St. Davids, which 
appears as "Landenev" in the B.B. Si. D., p. 70. It lies between 
Llan Non and Tre Veugan, "Meugan's homestead," which last is 
some quarter mile to the south. 

But there was another legal term in Welsh, which in or prior to 
Rhygyvarch's time might have been represented in Latin by depositum, 
and which appears to have been always associated with land ; if we 
may judge from its total absence in the law books of Gwynedd and its 
rarity in other law books, it was becoming in the twelfth century more 
or less obsolete. This word was prid^ which Owen (A.L., ii. 1124) 
defines as "price ; the price given to the lord for the tenure of land." 
In 1909 (W.M.L., 345) I defined it as "price, value, equivalent, 
payable in certain circumstances for land." It seems to have signified 
any security value for rights over land. Bodvan Anwyl in his Welsh- 
English Dictionary, 8th ed., adds "ransom" and "pledge" as mean- 
ings ; also pridio, to ransom, prido, to pawn, and pridwerth, purchase- 
money, ransom, as in St. Matt. xx. 28. If this was the word intended 
by Rhygyvarch, then Llan Veugan would also have been known as 
" Llan Brid," which does not occur. But we have Bridell, which is a 
mutated diminutive of prid, and which I conjecture stands for "Llan 
Bridell." The church of Bridell is dedicated to St. David. See next 

These gifts. With this passage compare the following extract from 
D.S.B. : " A boar came from the wood and stood by the bank of the 
river Ischir, and behind it in the river was a stag, and under the belly 
of the stag was a fish. These three portended that Brachan would be 
fortunate in supply of wealth. Moreover, there was standing on the 
shore of the aforesaid river a beech tree, in which bees were making 
honey. And Drichan said to Brachan, his foster son, ' Lo, I give thee 
this tree full of bees and honey, also of gold and silver, and may the 

NOTES, 2 61 

grace of God and his love abide with thee always, here and hereafter.' " 
In this strange passage we have fish, stag (also boar), and bees in some 
way symbolizing possession for Brychan, as they do for St. David. It 
would seem that there was a time when a man's lordship over un- 
cultivated land was declared by his right to all the honey, fish, and 
wild animals in it. In the earliest MS. extant of the Laws of Howel, 
viz. the Peniarth MS. 28, which, written in the last quarter of the 
twelfth century, is a Latin translation of a South Welsh law book, we 
read (A.L., ii. 766) : "A mayr and kymellaur\roy&\ officials] ought to 
guard the king's waste, and they shall have the honey, and the fish, and 
the small sylvan animals, that is, preuet [modern Welsh, pry-vet?], until 
the king shall dp his will concerning it, and until men shall come to 
inhabit it." It is clear that at first, when the land was uninhabited, 
the prid or " preciousness " of the land would be represented only by 
the honey, fish, and game. This/rztf is symbolized by a reservation of 
pieces of honeycomb, fish, and a wild animal such as a stag or a boar, 
which becomes a pledge of lordship. It may be that afterwards, when 
the land was inhabited, and greater value could be obtained from it in 
the form of food rents, etc., the original prid of honey, fish, and game 
might have been designated * pridell, the lesser prid, whence our 
Bridell, whilst prid might have come to be applied to more substantial 
profits. The above section from the Latin law book continues as 
follows : " Afterwards that land will be under the king, subject to laws 
as other land. Only of time [money equivalent of food rents] and pryt 
[other charges] do the mayr and kymellaur not take share with the 
king." This might mean that the royal officials had the original ^rzioT, 
but not the newer forms otprid, such as those mentioned in the follow- 
ing triad ( W.M.L., 53 ; A.L., i. 550), which-I translate thus : " There 
are three kinds of prid on land : one is, gobyr gwarckadw, fee for 
custody ; a second is, chattels which may be given to augment land or 
its privilege ; a third is, lawful labour which may be done on the land, 
whereby the land is improved." 

Rhygyvarch clearly did not understand the purport of the "deposit," 
to which he gives the fantastic explanation that they were "mystical 
gifts," foretelling Dewi's wisdom, asceticism, and victory over evil. 
But the Welsh Life (105) is nearer the mark, which gives the following 
remarkable equivalent for the passage: "And to (Sant) an angel 
appeared in his sleep, and said to him, 'To-morrow,' said he, 'thou 
wilt go to hunt, and thou wilt find three finds by the bank of the river 
Teivi, to wit, a stag, and a salmon, and a swarm of bees in a tree above 
the river in the place which is now called Henllan. Grant the right 
over the land to be kept for a son not yet born. He shall own two 
places until the judgment day,' which are mentioned above, Linhenllan 
and Litoninancan." From this it is clear (a) that the translator or his 
original identified "Linhenlanu" with Henllan on the river Teivi; 
(6) that a passage is omitted, which gave the two place-names, for he 
says, "which are mentioned above," and they are not mentioned; 

(c) that he had the form " Linhenlanu" or " Linhenlann" before him ; 

(d) that the stag, salmon, and bees were somehow connected with 
" right over land." It is also evident that the last part of Litoninancan 


is -maucan to equate with the Latin "of Maucann" ; likewise Liton- 
should stand for "monastery." Phillimore compares lytu teliatt in the 
.LI., 120, where lytu is populus in the Latin equivalent ('., 118), 
and is translated "community" by the editors (to., 365) ; " llydw, a 
host, household, community " (Strachan's Introduction to Early Welsh, 

of the Aquatic Life. With this compare Dauid Ajttilentus, D. the 
Waterman, 42, David Vir Aqtiaticus, Gerald's translation of the 
Welsh Dewi Deverur (iii. 379), and Dewi Dyfyrwr added to initial 
rubric above (see note). In the Life of St. Paul Aurelian, written in 
A. D. 884, that is, some two centuries before Rhygyvarch wrote his Life 
of St. David, where it is said that SS. Paul, Samson, Gildas, and 
David were fellow-disciples under St. Illtud, St. David is described as 
"surnamed Aquaticus" (Rev. Celtique, v. 421). Thus there can be 
no manner of doubt that this is a genuine and an ancient appellation ot 
Dewi Sant ; and that the term is specially applied to him indicates that 
he was the "Waterman" par excellence. 

But that St. David was not the only " Waterman" is proved by the 
place-name Llan Ddyvrwyr, the Monastery of the Watermen, two 
examples of which are known. The first is Llanddowror in Carmarthen- 
shire ; the second was in Monmouthshire on the river Usk, probably 
Tredonock, called Landubrguir in the Life of St. Cadog, and 
Landa-uerguir and Landeuer Guir in the Life of St. Cybi (C.B.S., 
50, 184; L.J5.S., iv. 380). Llanddowror, by the Carmarthenshire 
Tav, is called Ecclesia Aquilensium, the Church of the Watermen, and 
its land territorhim Aqtiitentiuni, the territory of the Watermen (J3.LI., 
77), while its legend is as follows (ib., 127-9). Cynwaew, a man of 
Dougleddyv, of good lineage but very poor, was troubled with too 
many children. He and his wife consulted St. Teilo, who advised 
them not to cohabit, which advice they followed for seven years and 
then broke. The result was that the wife gave birth to seven sons at 
one time, whereupon Cynwaew took them to the river Tav to drown 
them. At Ryt Sinetic St. Teilo rescued them one by one, baptized 
them, and brought them up. He sent them to a monastery of his called 
Llandeilo, which now took with some the name of Llan Ddyvrwyr, the 
Monastery of the Watermen, "because on account of their life of 
religion they lived on no other food than aquatic fishes, even to suffice 
for their number, for seven fishes were daily sent them by God on a 
stone in the river Tav, which stone took its name from them, namely, 
Lech Meneich, Monks' Slab. And again they were called Dyvrwyr 
because they were found in water, and were rescued through water, and 
were maintained by fishes from the water, for Dyvrwyr, a British word, 
means Water men." Whenever St. Teilo visited them, eight fishes 
were found on the stone, the eighth being larger than the rest and clearly 
meant for Teilo. After a while the seven brethren went to Mathry in 
Pebydiog, and were there known as Seilh Seint Mathrtt, the Seven 
Saints of Mathry. From here they went to Cenarth Mawr, where they 
died, leaving the estates, wherewith they had been endowed at 
Mathry and Cenarth by King Agricola of Dyved, to St. Teilo and his 

NOTES, 2, 3 63 

In this 2 it is said that David was surnamed " of the Aquatic Life " 
because he drank nothing but water. From 4 we gather that his 
mother, St. Non, also ranged herself among the Water-folk. In 50 
we read that he provided St. Daniel and St. Dubricius with a supper of 
fish, with bread and water. Gerald (VI. 104) preserves a tradition that 
all the successors of St. David till Bishop Morgeneu, who was killed in 
999, abstained from meat "Morgeneu was the first of the bishops of 
Menevia to eat flesh, and on that account was slain by pirates. Where- 
fore also that same night, the last he spent, he appeared to a certain 
bishop in Ireland, showing his wounds and saying, 'Because I ate 
flesh, I am become flesh.'" From this, and from the picture of the 
hard life of the Menevian monks in 21-31, Lloyd (155-6) is led to 
suppose, "that St. David's was a monastery of that stricter pattern 
which caused Gildas, if the extracts cited under his name on this subject 
are really his, so much anxiety in his later years. Monks, he complains, 
are forsaking their old allegiance in many monasteries of the ancient 
and less exacting type in order to join communities having a more 
rigorous ideal, in which the eating of meat, the drinking of all beverages 
save water, the use of horses and carriages are abjured. Bread is eaten 
by measure ; oxen are discarded so that the zeal of the brethren may 
show itself in the drawing of ploughs, and meanwhile, such is the 
burden of his lament, there is a notable falling off in Christian charity 
and a dangerous uprising of the pharisaic spirit" (for the Gildasian 
extracts see Williams' Gildas, 257-69). 

It is curious that Dubricius bears a name which is simply a latiniza- 
tion of the Welsh Dubric, later Dyvrig, meaning "waterling." That 
the British heresiarch of the same century, Pelagins, should also have 
borne a "water" name is perhaps a mere coincidence. It would be 
hard to believe, however, that such a man as Pelagius was not a 
staunch supporter of "teetotalism." 

3. Before Bishop Patrick arrived in Ireland in A.D. 432, he must 
have made preparations in Britain. That such preparations should 
have occurred in South Wales before he embarked at Porth Mawr is 
not improbable. Dr. Newport White (St. Patrick, 12-13) sa y s > " The 
language of the Confession implies three occasions on which Patrick 
was the object of adverse criticism, (i) We may suppose that c. 46 
('many were forbidding this embassage,' etc.), refers to the time 
when Patrick first mooted the notion of a mission to Ireland. Then 
(2) there came an attack in Britain (c. 32), when Patrick's 'dearest 
friend ' fought for him in his absence. And finally (3), the deadliest 
blow of all (c. 26-33), when 'not a few of his elders,' supported by 
his quondam dearest friend, 'came and urged his sins against his 
laborious episcopate.' I would venture to suggest that these dim 
hints possibly indicate that Patrick's evangelizing work in Ireland, as 
distinguished from his work as bishop, began before the year 432. In 
the first place, it is difficult to. see what ground Patrick could have 
given the seniores for their second attack, if he had not done something 
to irritate them. Again, unlearned as he was, Patrick must have given 
Germanus some proof of his powers to justify his consecration as 
missionary bishop, at once, on the death of Palladius." Then 


Dr. White makes the suggestion that Patrick's ' ' dearest friend " was no 
other than Germanus, and that the third attack was made by Germanus 
when he visited Britain the second time, about 447. Now the Life 
of St. David states that Patrick, before he went to Ireland as bishop, 
spent some time in Ceredigion and Dyved. It is possible that he 
was doing Irish work from these parts. The first Life of St. Carannog 
(C.J3.S., 97-8) seems to bear the stamp of truth, when it says that 
Carannog, the uncle of St. David, went to Ireland the same year as 
Bishop Patrick, the latter going first. It looks as though the two saints 
were working together, and that now the new bishop, anxious and 
eager, was hurrying before the other to complete arrangements in 
Dyved before setting sail. St. Patrick does not appear to have left 
any traces of himself in the topography of Ceredigion, unless we regard 
Capel Padrig in Nevern, which is in Cemes, as such, for Cemes appears 
to have been debatable ground between the two kingdoms, and remains 
to this day ecclesiastically in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan. In Dyved 
he was remembered at what is now Pembroke Dock, still locally known 
as Patter Dock, where once was Patter Church, or Patrick Church 
(Owen's Old Pembroke Families, 76), and at some three or four spots 
in St. David's parish. St. Issel's, near Tenby, commemorates an 
Auxilius, who may have been that one of Patrick's associates (Bury, 
163)1 whose name is preserved in Killishea, or Kill-ossy, near Naas, 
of which last place St. David is patron. Auxilius and Iserninus seem 
to have been Patrick's most important coadjutors, whose names, and 
no others, are joined with his in the preamble to the Irish Canons 
(White's Sf. Patrick^ 123-4). One's confidence in the evidence of 
the Life of St. Carannog is strengthened by the ancient association in 
Ireland itself of this saint, there called Cernach (C.B.S., 98), or 
Cairnech, with St. Patrick in the compilation of the Irish code of law, 
the Senchus Mor, "great antiquity." In Cormac's Glossary, tenth 
century, nine persons are named as having drawn up the original code, 
three kings, three lawyers, and three saints. The three saints are 
Patrick, Benen, and Cairnech. Bury (355-7) is impressed by the fact 
that of these nine persons, only five, including Patrick himself and king 
Loigaire, are conspicuous in the lives and legends of Patrick. Of the 
other four only one appears, whilst the remaining three, including 
Cairnech, are not mentioned at all. This tells for truth. Wherefore 
he concludes that the record "has a genuine and ancient basis." St. 
Carannog was buried in his own monastery at Dulane, 2^ miles N. 
of Kells, co. Meath (C.B.S., loo). 

Dyved. At the time Rhygyvarch was writing, Dyved would normally 
have meant the whole of what is now Pembrokeshire, and also the 
west of Carmarthenshire as far as a line drawn roughly from Abergwili 
on the river Towi to Llandysul on the river Teivi. Such had been 
the normal limits of Dyved for about three centuries. But previous 
to this Dyved had included as well the whole of the remainder of 
Carmarthenshire between the river Towi and the river Teivi, a district 
of seven cymwds grouped together under the name of Cantrev Mawr. 
Lewys Dwnn (Heraldic Visitation of Wales, i. 20), in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, found reason to go even further, for he says, " The boundaries 

NOTES, 3 65 

of the kingdom of Dyved were formerly between the river Teivi and 
the river Towi from Llyn Teivi and the source of the Towi to Dewi's 
Land; and the centre of this kingdom was at the Dark Gate in 
Carmarthen ; and there is to-day a record of these bounds in an old 
parchment book of the Bishop of St. Davids." This would carry 
Dyved northwards beyond Strata Florida, and, as we may note, would 
include Llanddewi Vrevi. The diminution of Dyved occurred about A. D. 
750-800, when king Seisyll of Ceredigion, possibly through invasion 
and conquest, took over the three cantrevs which lie E. of Carmarthen 
town between the river Teivi and the river Tawe (say between Lampeter 
and Swansea). These three cantrevs added to the four of Ceredigion 
made up the new kingdom of Seisyll wg, i.e. SeisylTs land (Mab. 
R.B. 25). The diminished Dyved from its king, Rhain ab Maredudd, 
took on the name of Rheinwg, i.e. Rhain's land. 

wandering aboiit. Gerald (III. 380) mentions by name the cantrev 
or hundred, in which Vallis Rosina lies, thus, "whereat length after 
wandering about he entered the angular district of Pepidiauc," later 
Pebydiog, i.e. the land of Pebyd. It does not appear that Pebyd has 
been identified. The existence of a hill in Cemes, the adjoining 
cantrev, called Mynydd Pebyd, in Eglwyswrw, would seem to indicate 
that the original Pebydiog was more extensive than the one with which 
subsequent ages were familiar. The last in English was called Dewi's 
Land, now Dewsland. Very roughly it is the district which lies 
to the N.W. of Pembrokeshire between Fishguard Bay and St. 
Bride's Bay. About 1536 Leland (64-5) finds that "S. David-Land 
beginnith at Newgulle," and that the river Gwaun divides Pebydiog 
from that part of the parish of Fishguard which lies in Cemes. In 
1617, however, according to the evidence of ancient residents, at an 
Inquisition held at Fishguard on August 19 of that year, Good wick 
River, which divides Fishguard and Llanwnda parishes, also divided the 
hundreds of Dewsland and Cemes, so that the whole of Fishguard 
was in Cemes (Pritchard's St. Dogmaei's Abbey, 197-8). There is a 
note in MS. c of the Latin- Welsh Chronicle (Trs. C.S., 1899 1900, 
p. 177) to the effect that Pebydiog was given to the bishops of St. 
Davids by Rhys ab Tewdwr, king of the Deheubarth, in 1082. And 
Gerald (III. 154) says that "the whole cantrev of Pebydiog was 
conferred on St. Davids by the pious bounty of the princes of South 
Wales." He complains that Bernard, the first Norman French Bishop 
of St. Davids (1115 1147), very indiscreetly divided it among the 
magnates of the country, providing only small portions for the prebends 
though a goodly share was reserved to supply the bishop's table. 
" In this Bernard's time, too, the land of Fishguard of the province of 
Pebydiog was sworn away." It is clear from a well-known section in 
the Laws of Howel Dda (d. 950), that long before the time of Rhys ab 
Tewdwr the bishops of St. Davids had received favours from the kings 
of Dyved, for there we read that "Mynywis free from every due" 
( W.M.L., 121). George Owen's account (O's P., i. 48-9) is as follows : 
' ' Dewisland is that which was in Ancient tyme called the Cantre of 
Pebidiok, and so is it called of all the Welshmen to this daie. It tooke 
the name of Dewislande amonge the Englishmen, for that it was given 


to the bushoppsea of St. Dauides, which St. dauide was called in welsh 
Dewy, and therefore the Englishmen called it Deivisland, as the landes 
of St. Dauides. And that name beinge given to the hundred at the 
first tyme yt was made a hundred, the same soe contynueth still." He 
also tells us (ib., 39) that Dewsland retained the Welsh language 
because the Norman French invaders cared not to harry Church estates, 
which to them would be "a prophane and Impiouse offence." 
Gerald (VI. 127) compares Pebydiog with Anglesey, arid and stony 
lands, ugly in appearance and unpleasant. The cantrev of Pebydiog 
was divided into two cymwds, the smaller one to the north, called 
Pencaer, i.e. "fortress end," as it contained the strong caer or fortress, 
now known as Y Garn Vawr, "the great rock." The cymwd of 
Pencaer would seem to have been coterminous with the parish of Llan 
Wnda. The rest of the cantrev was the cymwd of Myny w. 

Vallis Rosina, the "Valley" in which St. David's Cathedral now 
stands, surrounded by gaunt, desolate ruins, piteous to behold. The 
little stream, Alun, flows through it, the source of which is traceable 
some six miles from where it empties itself into the sea. " Its course, 
though tortuous, is in general from N.N.E. to S.S.W., and for the 
last two or three miles runs through a narrow and winding dell " 
(J.F., 5). This "narrow and winding dell" from about Pont y Penyd 
to the sea, owing to its depth as compared with the upper portion of 
the river's course seems to have been distinguished for ages as the nant, 
vallis, or vale, specially so called. George Owen (1552 1613) says, 
"St. Davids church, close, and Canons houses called the valley*' 
(O's P., i. 109) ; also (Survey, 48-9), " The Town stands upon a Hill 
above the Bottom in which the Church stands, which is call'd the 
Valley" i and again, "The Valley is enclos'd with a very high Wall, 
by which and the Gates, when well look'd to, the Church-men would 
formerly have defended themselves against a whole Country that should, 
have come against them with Spears and Shields." Browne Willis 
(34) tells us in 1715 that the Close "from its low Situation with respect 
to the Town, is call'd the Valley." In 1811 Richard Fenton (35) of 
Glynamel, who was born and brought up at St. Davids, writes of 
"the little cheerful vale, justly called the Merry Vale, through which 
the Alan glitters in its meandering course." In 1856 Jones and 
Freeman (10) speaking of the four townships of St. Davids, each of 
which is called cylch, circle, say, " To these must be added the Close 
or Valley, which is extra-parochial." In present day Ordnance Survey 
maps the course of the Alun, S. of the Close, is marked Merry Vale, 
which by the Welsh is called Virival, as Pont V., and Ffynnon y V. ; 
on an 1853 tombstone in the churchyard I saw " Verivall." From all 
this it follows that Vallis Rosina never meant the whole course of the 
Alun from Llangige Vach to Porthclais, but only the "Valley." Much 
less does it mean (as when we read in 16 of Bwya, the Druid chieftain, 
giving St. David "the whole of Vallis Rosina for a perpetual 
possession") all the cymwd of Mynyw, and even the cantrev of 
Pebydiog, as has been stupidly asserted. 

Rosina. Gerald (VI. 107), says, " The spot, where the Church of 
Menevia is situated, and founded in honour of the blessed Apostle, 

NOTES, 3 67 

Andrew, is called Vallis Rosina, which might preferably be named 
marmorea, of marble, rather than rosea, of roses, or rosina, since it 
abounds very little in roses, but very much in marble." P'rom this it is 
evident that Gerald supposed Vallis Rosiha to mean vallis rosea, rosy 
valley, whence writers have confirmed themselves in the notion that 
rosina is a latinization of the Welsh rhosyn, a rose ; but rhosyn "is a 
mere loan-word, with the Welsh masculine singulative-suffix. The 
true Welsh word for 'roses' was breilw" (Y C., xi. 201). It is more 
likely that rosina is connected with rhos, moor. A form of this word, 
rhosan, was once familiar in the language spoken at St. Davids, as 
shown by the name of Rhoson, a farm between Clegyr Vwya and 
Forth Stinan. There too we find Rhoson Ganol and Rhoson Isa 
(middle and lower Rh. ), north of Cam Roson (Rh. rock). All these 
lie immediately west of a moor, from which, doubtless, the name is 
derived. This moor, though now called Treveiddan after an adjoining 
farm, might quite as well have been designated Rhoson Moor, and 
indeed a bit of it to the N.E. is so designated, viz. Waun Rh., which 
means Rh. Moor. Moreover, that one of the seven islands or rocks, 
known as Bishops and Clerks, which is due west of Rhoson Farm, is 
called Carreg Rhoson, and near it is Maen Rhoson. The word Rhoson 
is dialectical for older Rhosan (see the pre-Reformation Liber Com- 
munis of the Cathedral Church, J.F., 375, 378. etc., where it is spelt 
Rossan; also O's P., i. 113, Carreg y rossatt), with which may be 
compared our Pembrokeshire diofol (diofal), hoson (hosan),3#/(gofal), 
etc. It is the Welsh name for Ross in Herefordshire, Rhosan ar Wy, 
Rh. on Wye (Report of MSS. in Welsh, i. 920), and is found else- 
where as in the name of the Rhosan brook, Cil y Cwm, Carmarthen- 
shire. It seems to be a diminutive oirhos, meaning "little swamp." 

Now it is remarkable that St. David built his original monastery on 
a little swamp, what Jones and Freeman (38) term a "quagmire," in 
the "Valley." Fenton (41) says, " The cathedral church of St. David's, 
from some particular attachment to the primitive sanctity of the spot, 
was built in damp, boggy ground, nor was the veneration for the 
ancient site at all lessened when the present fabric rose under the 
auspices of Peter de Leia [bishop from 1176 to 1203], who, to make 
room for the extension of the building eastward, excavated the hill till 
he bared the spring, the origo mali, that fed the moisture which 
rendered it necessary to raise the building on piles. This spring, the 
miraculous Pistyll Dewi, afterwards sainted, and referred to with 
superstitious veneration by Giraldus [III. 390], and which, now choaked 
up with rubbish, I remember open, and yielding water of the finest 
quality, though not overflowing with wine or milk, was always most 
unaccountably suffered to lose itself under the church, thereby con- 
tinuing the mischief it was meant from the first to obviate or to remedy, 
and which must unavoidably hasten the downfall of the venerable 
fabric." It is not impossible, or improbable, that Vallis Rosina was 
so called after this " quagmire" in it, upon which the Cathedral stands, 
that these Latin forms represent some such original as Nant Rhosan 
(of which Nant Rhosyn might be a variant), and therefore that the 
meaning is simply "the valley of the little bog." This was not the 


common name in Rhygyvarch's day, who tells us ( 15) that the Welsh 
generally called it Hodnant or Hoddnant. 

that the place was pleasant. It is Gerald (III. 380), who is responsible 
for the common opinion that Vallis Rosina was selected because of its 
seclusion, for he paraphrases this passage as follows: "Arriving, 
therefore, at the place, which is called Vallis Rosina, and perceiving 
and considering that the place was very remote from the noisy crowd, 
a place, owing to its delightful solitude on the Irish Sea, suitable for 
religion and contemplation, he conceived in his heart, and vowed as a 
fixed and established thing in his mind, that he would surrender 
himself to God in that place in devoted service till his latest breath." 
There is nothing of this in Rhygyvarch, who gives no hint that the 
spot was chosen for its remoteness. Rather is the spot the nearest and 
most accessible centre to all the "saints" of Scotland, Ireland, Man, 
Wales, the Devonian Peninsula and Brittany. Vallis Rosina lies 
midway between Forth Mawr and Forth Clais, whence the small craft 
of those days could sail north or west and south or east respectively. 
By placing the monastery in the valley it was protected from the fierce 
winds, which blow seaward and landward over the plain of Dewsland. 
Thus the spot was carefully chosen, not as being remote, but on the 
contrary, as being in the very heart of the monastic activities of Britons 
and Irish. Nor can it be doubted that to this St. Davids owed most of 
its marvellous success. 

the Seat of Patrick. Rhygyvarch tells us plainly that "the Seat of 
Patrick " was in Vallis Rosina. His words are : de sede que est in 
Rosina Ualle que modo Sedes Patricii nominatur, from the seat, which 
is in Vallis Rosina, which now is named the Seat of Patrick. In view 
of this precise statement, it is amazing that writers should have sought 
for it elsewhere than in the "Valley," and should still be continuing to 
do so. John of Tynemouth (N.L.A., i. 255) inserts the following 
bracketed words into Rhygyvarch's text : ex loco in quo stabat \et erat 
uallis satis magna, in quo est lapis, super quern stetit, ante hostium 
cuiusdam capella antique ; queni ego oculis vidi et manibus palpaui\ 
totam ptospexit insulam, from the place in which he was standing [it 
was a rather large valley, wherein is a stone on which he stood, before 
the door of a certain ancient chapel, which I saw with my eyes, and 
touched with my hands] he viewed the whole island. The words I 
have bracketed take the place of the following in the original : qui modo 
Sedes Patricii dicitur, which now is called the Seat of Patrick. This 
proves that in John of Tynemouth's time (c. 1290-1350), the "Seat of 
Patrick," which was lapis, a stone, was still in the "Valley." Yet 
Jones and Freeman (228) will have it that " Pare y Capel " at the 
northern end of Whitesand Bay, at the foot of Cam Lleity, marks the 
site! "There can be no doubt" (they tell us) that the Chapel, 
"probably" St. Patrick's Chapel, was erected on the spot! 

There are four places in St. David's parish associated with 
St. Patrick, two of which are in the "Valley." These are (i) Forth 
Padrig, the south gate of the Close ; (2) the Treasury within the Close, 
where according to popular tradition, of which Jones and Freeman 
219) make fun, St. Patrick was born (the embattled wall of the garden 

NOTES, 3 69 

still remains, and contains a gateway with a stone seat for a porter, 
which I do not say is the Seat of Patrick, but, as we know it was a 
stone, it may have survived in this fashion) ; (3) Cam Badrig, Patrick's 
Rock, on Carswdig farm, a few steps S.W. of the house (I am indebted 
to Mrs. Dawson, late of St. Davids, for telling me of this, and to 
Mr. Howel James of Carswdig for taking me there, May 2, 1918) ; 
and (4) Pare y Capd, at Forth Mawr, which, as Jones and Freeman 
(228) cautiously say, "probably marks the place of St. Patrick's 
Chapel." The earliest evidence known to me for attributing this 
Chapel to St. Patrick is that of George Owen (d. 1613) in Browne 
Willis' Survey, 54. 

Of course it would have been a marvel had St. Patrick seen all 
Ireland from the top of Carn Lleity, but it is one of the points of the 
story that the saint was allowed by God to see the whole of the 
island from a valley. Mountains and seas were miraculously lowered 
that the future Apostle of Ireland might take in the vision of the task 
before him, which by the greater miracle of the grace of God he did 
so well. Jones and Freeman (228) saw that the wonder was increased 
by the mention of mountains, but they must have considerably stretched 
their imaginations if they considered Pare y Capel to be in a valley, 
and still more so if they supposed it to lie in a valley "rather 

Porth Mawr is now the Welsh name of the whole of Whitesand Bay, 
some mile and a half to the N.W. of the Cathedral. This bay is of 
oval form, stretching from St. David's Head in the north to a sea rock 
in the south called Y Gawlog. The distance between these points is a 
mile. Within this oval bend there are some four creeks, such as 
Porth Milgan below the Head, and Porth Seli, "Solomon's Creek," 
near Y Gawlog. But the most commodious is Porth Mawr, strictly so- 
called, "the large creek," which is at the mouth of a tiny stream, 
curiously known as Avon Vawr, "large river," perhaps short for 
Avon Porth Mawr, where is the site of the ancient chapel, which has 
long been regarded, but with what authority I cannot tell, as 
St. Patrick's, and where too the road from St. Davids terminates. A 
farm, to which the name of the creek has attached itself, is close by on 
the southern slope of Carn Lleity. In front of Porth Mawr is a broad 
stretch of firm sand over half a mile in length at low water of ordinary 
tides, whence one could then walk on it to Porth Seli. It is called 
Trath Mawr, "large beach." On the landward side of Trith Mawr 
are the Burrows, in Welsh Towyn, "sand," being an extensive tract of 
blown sand, beneath which human imagination has pictured anything 
from a cathedral church to a Roman "station." Porth Mawr is the 
harbour of St. Davids for Ireland and the north, as Porth Clais is the 
harbour of St. Davids for the shores of the Severn Sea and the 
English Channel. 

The earliest reference to Porth Mawr known to me shows that from 
early times it was a recognised point of departure from South Wales to 
Ireland. In D.S.B. there is a record of a journey from near Llanvaes 
in Breconshire to Ireland. The travellers stopped the first night at 
Llahsevin, near Llangadog Vawr, by the river Towi. The second 


night they stopped at Meidrym, also in Carmarthenshire. And the 
third night they reached Forth Mawr, where they embarked for Ireland. 
The head of this party was Marchell, afterwards wife of Anlach, an 
Irish king, and mother of Brychan, who gave his name to Brycheiniog 
( Y C., xix. 24). This Marchell may have given her name to Caer 
Varchell, "Marcella's Fort" not far E. of Dowiog Common. 
St. David was her descendant in the fifth generation. Gerald (VI. 165), 
mentions " PortJimaur at Menevia, that is, Great Harbour," and 
(VI. 108) tells of Henry II. landing there irom Ireland in portu 
Menevcnsi, in the harbour of Menevia, whence the king proceeded to 
the Valley, being met by a procession of canons apud Albam Portam^ 
at Porthgwyn, which was the west entrance to the Close. Leland, 
c. 1536, notes, " Port Maure, where is a greate sande with a short 
estuary into the lande," that is, at the mouth of the stream ; also 
" And sum say that there hath beene a castel at or aboute Port Maur, 
but the tokens be not very evidente" (Itinerary, 1906, pp. 64-5). 
George Owen (d. 1613) says, "The next noted Place upon this Coast, 
is Part-mawr. It is no Road for Ships, being in a manner dry when 
the Tide is out. But then the Country People throw their Sayns, or 
large Nets, in Summer Time along this Bay, and catch what Fish are 
there within that Compass. The chiefest Fish they catch are Suens. 
This Bay is near Capel-Patrick " (Survey, 62). Casting rhwyd sdn, 
the seine net, for salmon, etc., is no longer done at Forth Mawr, but 
is to be seen further up the coast, as at Fishguard, Newport, and 
St. Dogmael's. 

Criumther. Doubtless a mistake for Cruimiker, which is Irish for 
"priest," equating with Welsh pryvder, from "presbyter." It may 
be, as stated in the text, a personal name (cf. Sacerdos, the name of a 
British priest, who attended the Council of Aries in 314). Gerald 
(iii. 381) gives the name of the man raised from the dead at Forth 
Mawr as Dunaudus, i.e. Dunawd, or Dunod, a Welsh name borrowed 
from the Latin Donat-v& (see 18 and note). That St. Patrick should 
have taken with him as a fellow-worker to Ireland an old priest, who 
had been "buried," let us say "stationed," for 12 years at Forth 
Mawr, is not incredible. Anyhow the story implies that the chapel, 
which formerly stood in Pare y Capel at Forth Mawr, and now 
attributed to Patrick, represents an ecclesiastical foundation older than 
the days of his episcopacy, z.<?. before A.D. 432. 

4. comtmmity. Latin plebem, whence is derived the Welsh plwyv, 
"parish." It first meant " people," "congregation," "community." 
I am uncertain as to the exact significance of the word here. Gerald 
(III., 379), who places this section before the last, says that Sant, 
"turning aside into the province of Dyved, had diverted into the parts 
of Pebydiog," which looks as though he had understood plels to stand 
for cantrev, the "hundred" community, which he identifies with 

Nonnita. This name survives as Nynnid in the extinct church Oi 
Eglwys Nynnid, near Margam, Glamorganshire. As the genitive of 
a man's name it is found on an inscribed stone at Tregoney in Corn- 
wall ( Y C. t xviii. 20). But the mother of St. David is better known as 

NOTES, 4 71 

Nonn, spelt Non, as in the familiar place-name, Llan Non, which occurs 
at least five times in Wales : ( I ) in Llanrian, Pern. ; (2) near Cregrina, 
Rad. ; (3) near Penbre, Carm. ; (4) near listen, Gower, Glam. ; 
(5) in Llansantffraid, Card. ; -to say nothing of Capel Non, over 
St. Non's Bay, in St. Davids. Rhygyvarch says nothing of her ancestry, 
but from his account that Sant met her in Dyved, apparently in ' ' a 
community of the Demetic nation," and that it was in the days of 
Triphunvis and his sons, whom we know to have been rulers of Dyved 
(Y C., ix. 171), and that the child was baptized by St. Aelvyw, whose 
foundation in Wales is at St. Elvis near St. Davids, it is evident that 
he is implying that Nonnita was living in Dyved and was doubtless 
a Demetian girl. Gerald is much more definite, who makes Sant to 
meet Nonnita in Pebydiog (III. 379), and the pregnant girl to go to 
church at Caervorva (ib., 381), which was south of the "Valley" and 
near the sea, and the child to be baptized at Porthclais (#., 383). In 
fact Gerald seems to locate all the incidents connected with St. Non, 
in Pebydiog, round about Capel Non, over St. Non's Bay. 

In B. y S. we are told that Non was the' daughter of a certain 
Cynyr, who is said to have been " of Caer Gawch in Mynyw," a place 
which has not been identified. One copy, however (c), calls the spot 
Caer Gawc, whilst another (6), omits "in Mynyw" Caer Gawch is 
possibly for Caer Gawc. Phillimore draws attention to the name 
Kaoc, which Gerald (VI. 34, 81) applies twice to the cymwd of Caeo in 
Cantrev Mawr. The extinct church of P-umsaint, " Five Saints," in 
Caeo, is pimpseint kaircaiau in D.LI., 56, 62, 287. The juxtaposition 
of Caer Gawc, Kaoc, and Kaircaiati is very suggestive. Moreover, the 
father of the five saints is said to have been Cynyr, the authority for 
which is the Cwrtmawr MS. 44, written in the second half of the 
sixteenth century, called "A Kalendar of Welsh Saints," etc. {Report 
on MSS. in Welsh, ii. 936). The Festival of the five saints is made to 
coincide with All Saints' Day, and then we read, " they were brothers, 
who were born at the same time, at the same birth, to the same 
woman ; and their father was called Cynyr Varvwyn, C. Whitebeard, 
from the parish of Cynwyl Gaeo in Carmarthenshire. Their names 
Gwynn, Gwnno, Gwnnoro, Kelnyn, Keitho; and Keitho has a 
festival of his own" (O's P., ii. 410-11). 

bread and water. From this it is plain that Non joined her son and 
the other people " of the Aquatic Life " (see 2) ; which is confirmed 
by the number of her churches in South Wales, the Devonian peninsula, 
and Brittany, often very near to churches of St. David. To those 
already enumerated add Bradstone in Devon, near the E. bank of the 
river Tamar ; Pelynt in Cornwall, some three miles from the coast 
between Looe Bay and Fowey Harbour ; Altarnun in Cornwall, some 
ten miles W. of Bradstone ; and St. Non's Chapel in Grampound, 
also in Cornwall. She has a chapel at Dirinon, near Brest, in Finis- 
tere, and is also the patroness of Lagona-Laoulas in Quimper diocese. 
For these Cornish and Breton houses of Non I follow the authors or 
L.B.S., iv. 23, 25. 

level space. The two big stones, distant from each other the length 
of a human body, might have been a ruined cromlech. It would 


appear to have been a different place from that of Dewi's birth 
mentioned in 6 below. 

5. Geoffrey of Monmouth (vii. 3) refers to the incident contained 
in this section thus : "a preacher of Ireland shall be dumb on account 
of an infant growing in the womb." Geoffrey died in 1155. Caradog 
of Llancarvan, a contemporary (If..., xii. 20), in his Life of St. 
Gildas relates the same story, but his Latin is not Rhygyvarch's. He 
says the church was by the sea in Pebydiog (see Selections). An Irish 
version of the story is in the Life of St. Aelvy w with striking variations 
(see Selections). 

a certain church. Caradog of Llancarvan, as we have just seen, 
describes this church as maritime by the sea-shore, and as being "in 
the region of Pebydiog." Gerald (III. 381), some fifty years later, 
says it was "situated in the place called Kairmorva, that is urbs 
maritima vel castrum, maritime ' town ' or fort." This has given rise 
to a widespread idea that there was a " town" by the sea at St. Davids, 
and much has been the anxiety to locate it. Jones and Freeman (38) 
thought this "town" was at Porthmawr or Whitesand Bay. They 
grounded their belief on the following evidence : (l) that on the 
Burrows there are some remains of uncertain date and use, bearing the 
popular name of "the Old Church"; (2) that Leland (64) writes: 
" And sum say that there hath beene a castel at or about Port Mawr, 
but the tokens be not very evidente " ; (3) that Browne Willis (64), 
quoting from a lost MS. of George Owen (d. 1613), has, "In a 
House . . . cali'd Porth-mawr from the Bay, there goes out of a 
Chamber a Passage under Ground that leads into the Sea ; it is almost 
a quarter of a mile long. Why it was made is not known " j (4) also 
(ib. t 66), "There is said to have been a Town formerly near the 
Burrows, cali'd Caer-Leon, which has its Name from old Caer-Legion, 
or Caer-Len, in Monmouthshire, from whence St. David remov'd the 
See to St. David's " ; and (5) that John Ray, the naturalist, who was 
at St. Davids in June 1662, writes, " The town is now a poor place; 
not far hence on the sands stood old Menew." Moreover, Jones and 
Freeman (38, 239) inclined to the opinion "that there was a Roman 
station in the neighbourhood of St. David's." They said they were 
led " to fix it near Whitesand Bay, and probably on the Burrows," 
where possibly it is "buried beneath the sand." Whether it was 
called " Menapia " was not important for their purpose. On p. 243 
they go so far as to maintain that Gerald's "Kairmorva" was "the 
town which stood on the shore of Whitesand Bay." 

The answer to all this is, that " Kairmorva " or Caer Vorva, as it 
might be spelt to-day, simply means/' the fort at Morva." It no more 
refers to a "town" than Caerbwdy, or Caervai, or any other caer of 
the very many about St. Davids. What, therefore, has to be sought, 
is the particular " Morva " from which the caer took its name. There 
is no evidence that there was a "Morva" specially so called at 
Whitesand Bay. It is true, although Jones and Freeman do not 
mention it, that the Welsh Life (106) makes the man whom St. Patrick 
raised from the dead at Whitesand Bay to have been buried there 
ar y morua, on the shore, but it is evident that the word morua is 

NOTES, 5 . 73 

only used here in a general sense, being indeed simply the translation 
of Rhygyvarch's iuxta litus, by the shore. 

Doubtless the "Morva" intended by Gerald is the well-known one 
which lies south of the Cathedral between Porthclais and St. Non's 
Bay. It is referred to several times in pre-Reformation portions of the 
Liber Communis of St. Davids, containing the Chapter accounts (J. and 
F., 375, 378, 381). In the 1838 Tithe Terrier of St. Davids it appears 
under Porthclais as " Morfa." And I found that the locality is familiar 
under this name to the people of St. Davids at the present time. 
Capel Non lies to the E. of it, but formerly may have been included 
in it. The caer seems to have disappeared, unless it is represented by 
the " Intrenchments " so marked on the six-inch Ordnance Survey 
map, on the eastern cliffs of Porthclais. It does seem as though Gerald, 
whether rightly or wrongly, would have all the incidents in this Life, 
relating to St. Non, to occur at or near Capel Non. 

It is surprising that Jones and Freeman, who (39) find a close 
resemblance between the remains on the Burrows and those on 
St. David's Head, should have adhered to the notion that the former 
might prove the site of a " Roman station," for the latter are patently 
prehistoric ; and had the Romans settled on the Burrows (for which so 
far there is not a scrap of evidence), their relics would not at all have 
resembled the rude remains on the headland. 

Some six miles from Hen Vynyw up the Cardiganshire coast is Llan 
Non, the Church of Non, where there is said to be a persistent 
tradition that St. David was born. The "Church of Caer Vorva" is 
claimed to have been located there on Morva Esgob, "Bishop's 
Morva " ; and David, it is said, in after years apportioned the Morva 
among the poor fishermen at the place. Moreover, as a child, he used 
to walk to school every day to Hen Vynyw (L.B.S., iv. 22, n. 3). 
One might be tempted to consider this claim, were it not that 
Rhygyvarch certainly seems to imply (although he does not definitely 
say so) that St. David was born in Dyved (see note to Nonnita, 4). 

Gildas, son of Caw, born in " Arecluta" where his father reigned as 
king. " Arecluta," later Arglud, means " Clyde-side," as Arvon 
means " Mon-side," "on or opposite Anglesey." It was in modern 
Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire. According to the early Breton Life of 
St. Gildas (C.M., 91 ff.), he had four brothers and one sister. The 
eldest brother, Cuillus, succeeded his father. The rest became saints. 
Maelog founded Llowes in Elvael, Radnorshire; Egrcas and Alleccus 
founded Llan Eugrad and Llan Allgo respectively in the district of 
Twrcelyn, Anglesey ; their sister, Peteova, had her oratory between 
the last two. In early youth Gildas was placed under St. Illtud, 
probably on the recommendation of St. Cadog, who seems to have been 
spiritual adviser to Caw, the father of Gildas (see next note). Illtud 
had been converted by St. Cadog (C.B.S., 45-6). Under Illtud he is 
said to have had as fellow disciples St. Samson and St. Paul Aurelian, 
and even St. David (but little credence can be attached to the last). 
He studied also in Ireland. He corresponded with St. Bridget of 
Kildare, to whom he presented a bell, for he was a noted bell-wright. 
He worked for a time in Scotland, converting heathen Picts, from whom 


he himself had sprung, to the faith. He was invited by Ainmericus t 
high king of Ireland, to that country " to restore church order." We 
know from the eighth century Catalogue of Irish Saints that like St. , 
David and St. Docus he played a large part in the affairs of the Church 
in Ireland, in the period succeeding that of St. Patrick. He is best 
known, nowadays, from the Open Letter, the Epistle of Gildas, which 
he addressed to the princes and clergy of "Britannia." Five of the 
princes are named by him : Constantine of Devon, Aurelius Caninus 
[of Cornwall], Voteporix of Dyved, Cynlas [of Rhos], and Maelgwn 
[of Anglesey]. This Letter is now divided into 1 10 chapters, of which, 
however, chapters 2 to 26 constitute a much later work, dealing with 
the supposed loss of the island of Britain by the Welsh, which little 
book has not only tarnished the reputation of St. Gildas as a man of 
ordinary sense, but has also vitiated the history of Britain for some 
1200 years {Celtic Re-view, 1913-1916; Y C., xxvii., xxxi). Gildas 
died and was buried in Brittany at his own monastery at Ruys. 

It is very remarkable that this great man, the most eminent of all 
the Welsh saints (except Patrick) and no mere local celebrity, does 
not appear to have left a single foundation in his native Britain. 
Not a llan or a well in Wales is called after his name. It may 
not be hard to account for this. For not only did he in his Open 
Letter make a frontal attack on the high-placed worldlings of his 
time, both in Church and State, but it is evident, from surviving 
fragments of his letters, that he set himself resolutely, as a faithful 
Churchman, against the excesses of the Watermen, and (if we may 
judge from such stories as the one in this section) against St. 
David himself, the head of the Watermen. Thus he would have 
had arrayed against him some of the most powerful influences in 
" Britannia." With no welcome in the royal courts of Cornwall, 
Devon, Dyved and Gwynedd, or in any of the monasteries which sided 
with the Watermen, Gildas may have thought well to migrate to 
Brittany, which we know he did, to the good of Lesser Britain, and 
(who can doubt it?) to the loss of Wales, for it meant the removal of 
his powerful check on the worldlings and the fanatics who crowded 
him out. 

Caw, called in the Life of St. Cadog (C.B.S., 58) Can. cognomine 
Pritdin, Caw, surnamed Prydyn, i.e. Caw of Pictland, and said to 
have reigned for many years ultra montem Bannauc, beyond Mons 
Bannatic. Skene and Phillimore see Bannauc in " Carmunnock," 
which gives its name to a parish in Lanarkshire, through which the 
Cathkin Hills partly run from west to east; hence they identify Mons 
Bannauc with these hills. If this is right, " beyond Mons Bannauc " 
cannot but mean Arglud, "Clyde-side," of which we know (see last 
note) that Caw was king ( y C., xi. 75, . 7), and my argument (Y C., 
xxii. 140-2) may stand. But Cadog is made to meet Caw on this side 
of the mountain, and the mountain itself ''is said to be situated in 
media Albanie," in the middle of Scotland, which can hardly be said of 
the Cathkin Hills. Caw, whom Cadog had raised from the dead, is 
made to say, " I reigned formerly for many years beyond ' Mons 
Bannaac,' but it chanced that at the devil's instigation I came to these 

NOTES, 5 75 

coasts [i.e. this side of the mountain], with the full company of my 
plunderers, for the purpose of plundering and ravaging the same. The 
king, who at that time governed this region, pursued us with his troops, 
and, joining battle, slew me and my army." After this Caw assists 
Cadog in the construction of his new monastery, abides there till his 
death, and is allowed the rule over twenty-four vills by the kings of 
the Albani. The new monastery was doubtless at Cambuslang, the 
church of which is dedicated to St. Cadog, apparently the only church 
so dedicated in Scotland. Cambuslang church is actually in Arglud, 
" Clyde-side," not a mile south of the river, so ihat Caw would seem 
to have come to Arglud, this side of Motts Bannauc, from Pictland 
proper, beyond the Clyde. In other words, Caw, the father of Gildas, 
was a Pict. 

Caw is also known in Welsh tradition as Caw o Dwrcelyn, C. of 
Twrcelyn, a region in the north of Anglesey, which was one of the six 
cymwds of the island. "It is not clear (says Phillimore) how Caw 
got the name of ' Caw of Twrcelyn ' (in Anglesey), which is found in 
Hancsyn Hen [Cardiff MS. 25], pp 12-13, 46-7 where are also given 
the names of his seventeen or twenty-one children, some of them 
daughters, and many of them commemorated as saints in Anglesey" 
(Y C., xi. 75, n. 7). We have seen in the last note that three of 
Caw's children had foundations in Twrcelyn according to the early 
Breton Life of St. Gildas. In Twrcelyn, too, in the very middle of the 
cymwd, not three miles from the foundations of Eugrad, Allgo, and 
Peteova, children of Caw, is a Llan Gadog, the only one in the whole 
of North Wales. One cannot ignore so striking a fact that there are 
monasteries of Cadog in Arglud and in Twrcelyn, with both of which 
districts tradition connects the name of Caw, the father of Gildas. It 
forces upon us the conclusion that Caw and St. Cadog were con- 
temporaries and friends, and that probably St. Cadog was Caw's 
spiritual adviser. 

It remains to be said that the pedigree of Caw appears to be un- 
known. No ancient or reliable document seems to give it. Only in 
late post-Reformation and very much doctored writings, contained in 
the Tola MSS., do we find a table of ancestry provided for him, which, 
however, is not that of a Pictish raider from beyond Mons Bannauc, 
but of a Devonian royal house, viz. the line of Geraint ab Lludd. 
Geraint had a son Cadwy (see note to 32), with whose name that 
of Caw of Pictland has been confounded (Y C., xi. 75, n. 7). It is in 
these same writings, in the lolo MSS., that we find the ridiculous 
identification of Gildas with " Aneurin," on the strength, no doubt, of 
the supposed connection between Gild-2& and A.n-eurin. The latter 
should really be Neirin as in the Historia Brittonum, 62 (C.M., 205) 
said now to derive from Nigrinus. 

used to preach. It is not very probable that Gildas was a man, when 
Dewi was about being born in the days of King Triphumis, seeing that 
Gildas addressed Voteporix, grandson of Triphnnus, in Voteporix's 
old age. In the Epistle of Gildas, 31, Voteporix is described as grey- 
headed and approaching his end. "Consume not (says Gildas) the 
remnant of thy days in offending God" (C.M., 43). This is a most 


important datum in determining the chronology of events in this 

Triphunus. In 1895 a ^ Castell Dwyran, some l miles to the N. of 
Llanddewi Velfrey, Pern., was found the tombstone of " Voteporix the 
Protector," whose name appears on it both in Latin and Irish. This 
man is the " Vortiporius," king of Dyved, attacked in the Epistle of 
St. Gildas (C.M. 43). He is also the grandson of the King Triphunus 
mentioned here. In one of the Irish tribal histories, originally written 
in the eighth century, and called "The Expulsion of the Dessi," 
Triphun is said to be "the son of Aed Brosc, son of Corath, son of 
Eochaid Allmuir," the latter so described because he crossed the sea 
from Ireland to Dyved, and became the ancestor of the kings of 
Dyved (Y C., xiv. 112-3). The name of the Dessi survives in the 
barony of Deece, Co. Meath, and the two baronies of Decies, Co. 
Waterford. They had been driven from Meath, their ancient home, 
an'd had migrated southwards to the Waterford district. As Triphunus 
was an old man in 462, his great grandfather Eochaid Allmuir must 
have come to Dyved in the fourth century, and therefore his rule must 
have been allowed by the Roman government. This is the probable 
explanation of " Protector " ; the Demetian kings ruled by Roman 
authority. In later lists (FC*., ix. 171 ; viii. 86) they claim descent 
from the Roman emperors. That Voteporix's name should be in Irish 
as well as Latin on his monument shows that the Irish tongue was 
prevailing in Dyved as late as the third or fourth generation after Dewi's 
birth. The name Triphunus survives in Loch Twrffin, "Tryffin's 
lake," in LI an Rheithan parish, Pembrokeshire. 

6. druids. The Latin is magi, the common term for "druids" 
with Irish writers of Latin. "In the Irish MS. of the Pauline epistles 
at Wiirzburg, the gloss on Jannes and Jambres (2 Tim. iii. 8) is ' two 
Egyptian druids'" (C.E.B., 51). Welsh writers, too, used the same 
word. " Among the oldest instances in Welsh poetry (see an obscure 
poem in the Book of Taliesin in Skene's Four Ancient Books of Wales, 
vol. ii., p. 174) of the use of the word derwyddon, druids, is one where 
it is applied to the Magi or Wise Men, who came with presents to the 
infant Jesus [in the Scottish Gaelic version of the present-day New 
Testament druidhean~\ ; and its Irish cognate drui was not only .used 
in the same manner, but was usually rendered into Latin by magus, a 
magician" (Rhys' Celtic Britain, third ed., 70-1). Even "the Anglo- 
Saxon word for 'magic' was 'drycraeft,' and 'dry,' a wizard, was 
evidently 'druid'" (Y C., xxiii. 83, n. l). The word "druid" is 
now said to come from the same Aryan base (*dereti- "fast, hard ") 
as the English word " true " (Morris Jones' Welsh Grammar, 224). 

a certain stone. It would be hard to believe that this stone was not 
one marked with ogam characters, which might well strike Rhygyvarch 
as resembling the print of fingers. Apparently it was broken, the 
portion bearing the characters being exposed, the other portion being 
under the altar of a church built on the spot. It would appear from 
4, above, that this was not the place of Dewi's conception, for though 
stones for head and feet are mentioned, there is no reference to the 
church, or to any marks on a stone. 

NOTES, 7, 8 77 

7- Aelvyw : the full Welsh form of the name of St. Ailbe, patron 
saint of Munster, and archbishop of the same at Emlyin Co. Tipperary. 
Latinized forms are Albeus, Helueus, Helbeus, Elueus ( V.S.H., ii. 346). 
The Latin here reads, ab ffelue Mencuiensium episcopo, by H. bishop 
of the Myny w folk ; but there is an interlineation, iiel Muminensium, 
or of the Munster folk. This interlineation, being supported by old 
abridged copies of the Life of St. David such as C.C.C.C. 161, which 
so reads, D (mumtentium), and N (munimentium), it may be that in 
the autograph of Rhygyvarch the Munster folk were the people 
intended. Gerald (III. 383-4) tries to account for the presence of the 
Bishop of Munster at Porthclais on this occasion by attributing it 
to a special act of divine providence "by Aelveus, bishop of the 
Munevenses," who had arrived at that place and at that hour from 
Ireland by divine providence. It is remarkable, however, that St. 
Aelvyw, a contemporary of St. Patrick (d. 461), had a foundation in 
Pebydiog, now a ruined church, four miles E. of St. Davids, known as 
St. Elvis, in Welsh Llan Eilw, with which compare Vagwr Eilw, 
" Aeivyw's enclosure," some two miles N. of the same in Llan Hwel 
parish. Moreover, it is said in the Life of St. Aelvyw (see Selections) 
that the infant David was given by his father to Aelvyw for ever. 

Geographically, St. Aelvyw belongs both by origin and work to 
Munster. He actually appears in one place as the patron saint of 
Munster. He is occasionally found, however, in Leinster, Connaught, 
and even Ulster (V.S.H., i. xxx). 

in that place. According to Gerald (III. 383) it was at Porthclais, 
which is the harbour or creek of St. Davids, facing south. It seems to 
mean "the creek of the (stream) cut." George Owen (d. 1613) writes, 
" Portk-Clais, there is St. David's Key. It is a little Mile from the 
Town. The Tide comes in here a good way ; it is a very safe 
Harbour, by Reason of a Defence of Stone made cross it near the 
Haven's Mouth, with a Place only on one Side, for Boats to pass. 
Here no Doubt the Merchants did formerly load and unload, as they 
do still." And again, "near the Key stands Capcl-y-Pistyll, which 
has its Name from a Spring that runs under it, into a Cistern at the 
East End, under the Pinion" (Survey, 55, 52). This is the supposed 
miraculous spring mentioned in the text. 

a blind monk, reading inoni ceci. The Latin, however, is mout, as 
too N, omitted in D ; Gerald (III. 384) reads, a blind man called moni. 
I have treated momis as being the Greek p.6vos. The Welsh Life (107) 
says he was wynebclawr, "'flat-faced' like a clawr or board = Ir. 
clar-ainech) 'table-face,' i.e. without nose or eyes" (ib., 273). In the 
Life of St. Aeddan, 16 (see Selections), this saint, when at St. 
Davids, is said to have cured " a man having tabulatam faciem, a 
flat face, void of eyes and nostrils. And Aeddan blessed his face, 
and God gave him eyes and nostrils." For the whole subject, see 
Phillimore's article " 'Homo Plan us' and Leprosy in Wales" (Arch. 
Camb., 1920, pp. 224-250). I have mentioned the reading moui, as 
there was a well-known Irish saint, St. Mobhi, at Glasnevin, near 
Dublin, who was actually claraineck, and so called. 

8. In the Life of St. Ailbe (see Selections) it is said that David 


was given by his father to St. Aelvyw to be brought up to God. As 
Aelvyw had a monastery at St. Elvis, and is remembered at Vagwr 
Eilw in Llan Hwel parish, this does not seem incredible. But a 
similar claim is made in the Life of St. Colman of Dromore on behalf 
of that saint. I translate the following from S. col. 832 : "But when, 
returning thence, [Saint Colman] had arrived at the house of a king of 
Britannia, it happened that that night the queen brought forth a dead 
son, whom the blessed Colman in the power of God and of His holy 
apostles, whose relics he had with him, raised from the dead, nourished, 
and taught. lie is David, a glorious bishop of Britannia." It is 
noteworthy that there are two churches in North Pembrokeshire com- 
memorating St. Colman, viz. Llan Golman and Capel Colman. It is 
just possible that he was the original saint of Fishguard, whose name 
has long been forgotten, for among the ancient strips which run down 
" Ceven Abergwaun " or "Fishguard mountain 3 ' there is a Llain 
Golman, " Colman's strip." In Fishguard is a Maen Dewi, and 
formerly a "Dew Street" as in Haverfordwest, meaning "Dewi's 
Street" (cf. " Dewsland" for "Dewi's Land "). 

Vetus Rubus. This much is quite clear, that Vetus Rubus and 
Vallis Rosina were two different places. Vallis Rosina is the Valley 
where the Cathedral now stands. Vetus Rubus was elsewhere. The 
word rubus in classical Latin means "bramble-bush" and "black- 
berry " ; in old Welsh-Latin it was used much like llwyn, grove, 
without any suggestion of brambles or berries. In the B.LL^ 74, 
we have ad rubum saliculum, to the grove of willows ; and the 
Welsh Life (107) translates Vetus Rubus into Hen Llwyn, Old 
Grove. Yet the Latin rubus seems to have generated a Welsh 
word rhuv, berry, pi. rhuvion (Bod van Anwyl's Welsh-English 
Diet., 1918, s. rhyf). Gerald (III. 384) explains Vetus Rubus as 
follows: "in Welsh Hen Meneu, in Latin Vetus Menevia, Old 
Mynyw. This place took the name from the Irish muni, which means 
rubus, grove. Wherefore to this day the Church of Menevia is called 
in Irish Jlilmuni." If Gerald is right in thinking that by Vetus Rubus 
Rhygyvarch meant Hen Vynyw, Old Mynyw, then we must conclude, 
I suppose, that the name Mynyw was transferred to Vallis Rosina from 
some original Mynyw, wherever that may have been, for which reason 
' the latter was styled Hen Vynyw to distinguish it from the new. For 
it is certain that the monastery in Vallis Rosina was called Mynyw, 
because in the tenth century Latin- Welsh Chronicle we have at [810] 
Combustio Miniu, the burning of Mynyw, and at [906] Miniu fracta 
est, Mynyw was destroyed. Curiously enough, however, in the two 
references to St. Davids in this Chronicle before the ninth century, we 
have at [645] Percusio denieticcs regionis quando cenobium dauid in- 
censum est, the invasion of the land of Dyved, when the monastery of 
David was burnt ; and at [601] Dauid episcopus moni iudeorum, David, 
bishop m.i., which last words have never, as far as I know, been satis- 
factorily explained (Y C., ix. 163, 167, 158, 156). When the cantrev 
of Pebydiog was divided into cymwds about A. D. noo (Lloyd, 301), 
the cymwd in which St. Davids stands was called Mynyw, doubtless 
from the monastery in Vallis Rosina. To distinguish the monastery 

NOTES, 8, io 79 

from the cymwd, the Welsh called the former Ty Ddewi, lit. " Dewi's 
House," to this day. In Latin, Mynyw is retained in the form 
Menevia, from Meneu, treated as Menev, with the termination -ia. 
The question remains, Where was Hen Vynyw? . No place of this 
name is now known in the neighbourhood of St. Davids, nor have I 
been able to come across any substantial evidence that there ever was. 
See notes to 14. 

io. Pattlens (or Paulinus]. The bracketed words are interlineal. 
Paulinus being the preference of the old recensions, Gerald, and the 
Welsh Life, it was possibly in Rhygyvarch's lost autograph. Paulinus 
is the correct form. He was the founder of Llan Gors, Breconshire, 
where there is still a Llan Beulin, "the monastery of P." In 
Carmarthenshire is a Capel Peulin, with a Ffynnon Beulin, "P.'s 
well," near it. In the Life of St. Teilo (B.LI., 99), Poulinus instructs 
Teilo as well as Dewi. In Caeo parish, Carm., was found a stone, 
supposed to be P.'s tombstone. The epitaph is 

Servatur fidcei, patrieqtie semper amator, \ 

Hie Paulimis tacit ^ cultor pientisinms csqui. 

Preserver of the Faith, and ever a Lover of his Country, 

Here Paulinus lies, most devout Fosterer of Righteousness. 

The inscription is not earlier than the fifth and not later than the 
mid-sixth century. 

Germanus ) "born probably about A.D. 378, was a man of good 
family, who became one of the six ' dukes ' or governors, of Gaul." 
His governorship included the land which was later called Brittany. 
"Amator, Bishop of Autissiodorum (Auxerre), the chief town of his 
province, forcibly ordained him in 418. In the same year Amator died 
after providing that Germanus should be elected his successor. In 429 
Germanus, accompanied by Lupus, Bishop of Troyes, went to Britain 
on a mission to stamp out the Pelagian heresy, which was distressing 
the British Church." Lupus, who was consecrated the very year he 
came to Britain (429) , \v as before that a monk in the island of Lerins. It 
has been thought in recent times that he was the saint of Llan Blethian 
in Glamorgan (called locally Llan Ddiddan and Llan Liddatt) as though 
' ' Blethian " were Bleiddian (a diminutive of blaidd, wolf), but ' ' Lupus " 
would have entered the British language as Lup, and might to-day have 
been Llub. " According to Constantius, who wrote a Life of Germanus 
about A.D. 488, Germanus and Lupus were asked to come by a synod 
of British bishops. This is Bede's account too (i. 17). But Prosper of 
Aquitaine, a contemporary writer, says that Pope Celestine, 'at the 
suggestion of the deacon Palladius, sent Germanus as his representative 
into Britain.' The mission was completely successful. The enemies 
of the Church were crushed at a conference [there is no evidence that 
it was held at St. Albansj, and the enemies of the State, the Picts and 
Saxons, were routed in the Alleluia Victory, A.D. 430, organized by 
the two bishops. In 447 Germanus visited Britain a second time and 
procured the expulsion of the Pelagians. He died in 448 " (White's 
St. Patrick, 122). 

a certain island. This "island" has not been identified. In other 


MSS. of this Life, some of them older or as old as the unique one 
translated in this book, it is named, but in such forms that it is difficult 
to make out what they mean. The Bodleian Digby 112 (twelfth 
century) and the Bodleian 793 (thirteenth century) have in insula in 
wincdi lantquendi. The B.M. Cott. Nero E. i. (twelfth century) has 
in insula in wincdilanquendi. The C.C.C.C. 161 (twelfth century) 
has in insula wincdiland. The Buhez Sanies Nonn, doubtless follow- 
ing some very early text, reads enesenn languen vvmendi (Rev. Celt., 
1887, p. 424). Early attempts were made to explain these words, 
which seem to involve the Welsh gwyn or gwan, white, with the result 
that the "island" was identified with the Isle of Wight,, as Gerald 
(III. 384), or with Whitland, as Bodl. 336, the Bodl. Rawlinson 
B. 485 and B. 505, which read in insula Withlandi. Other MS. 
readings are in instila guit (Bodl. 285, fourteenth century) ; in insula 
Dilamgerbendi (an Utrecht MS. printed in A.S., 1668, i. 42) with 
"gerb" for "qv " (O's P., ii. 426) ; gueithi (Camb. Univ. Lib., Ff. I, 
27-28), so I am told; and Guerthi (Lambeth MS. 12, fourteenth 

13. This is truly a strange list, which cannot easily be accounted 
for. The number is suggestive, reminding one of the twelve sees 
which Pope Gregory the Great would have subject to London and York 
respectively (H.E., i. 29). Note the country traversed by the saint, 
who proceeds in a north-easterly direction through Glastonbury and 
Bath right across England to Croyland, i.e. right across Mercia, whence 
he turns west to Repton, near Lichfield, then south-west to Colva and 
Glascwm in Elvael (within modern Radnorshire), then back to Leo- 
minster in Herefordshire, then south to Raglan in Gwent, after which 
he founds Llan Gyvelach in Gower, whilst two churches in Cedweli 
submit to him. One can hardly dissociate this journey, which 
proceeds from the Devonian peninsula (a portion of the ancient 
"Britannia") through and about Mercia, from Gerald's argument, a 
century later, that St. Davids formerly had twelve suffragans "within 
the area of Wales, as now is, and of five dioceses in England, to wit, 
Chester or Coventry, Hereford, Worcester, Bath, and Exeter, even as 
is gathered from our histories" (Y C., xxx. I37> 163). It seems, 
therefore, that Rhygyvarch's list implies some such metropolitan claim 
for St. Davids long before Gerald's activities or even those of Bishop 
Bernard (1115-1147). In 1071 the Mercian sees were a subject of 
dispute between Lanfranc of Canterbury and Thomas of York in the 
presence of Pope Alexander II. In 787 Lichfield was made for a 
while independent of Canterbury, with the Mercian and East Anglian 
sees subject to it. It looks as though there was a remembrance of the 
old alliance between the Britons and Mercia in the seventh and eighth 
centuries (Celtic Review, 1916, pp. 3245), and that St. Davids was 
asserting a claim to metropolitan rights over the Midlands. Note that 
Dewi's original starting-place is made to be Hen Vynyw in Ceredigion, 
to which he returns before the angel directs him to found his principal 
monastery in Vallis Rosina. None of the twelve monasteries, except 
the latter, is in Dyved. Two (Glascwm and Colva) are in Elvael, a 
district in ancient Powys. One (Raglan) is between the Wye and the 

NOTES, 13 Si 

Usk in Gwent. Three (Llan Gyvelach and the two in Cedweli) are 
between the Tawe and the Towi in ancient Glywysing (though there is 
none between the Tawe and the Usk, the eastern and much greater 
portion of Glywysing) ; none in Brycheiniog, which, temporarily, as 
under Clydwyn ab Brychan, may have been reckoned as in Dyved ; and 
none in North Wales. Erging, however, is brought in by the mention 
of the miraculous cure of its king, Peibio, by Dewi. 

Glastonbury, Somerset. In Rhygyvarch's time, as the Domesday 
Survey shows, "the manors of Glastonbury practically formed one 
hnge estate in the centre of the county, stretching from Mells in the 
north-east to the right bank of the Parrett in the south-west. It 
comprised an eighth of the whole land of the county and amounted to 
442 hides, and a tenth of the population of Somerset was reckoned as 
belonging to it " (Victoria History, Somerset, ii. 85). 

Bath, Somerset. In Rhygyvarch's time the bishopric of Wells was 
transferred to Bath (A.D. 1088). Ptolemy (c. 150) calls the place 
A TSara Qepfid, "hot springs," and places it with Winchester in the 
territory of the Belgae. The Antonine Itinerary (c. 300) refers to it as 
Aqtia Suits, "the waters of Sul," a local deity (the "sun" god, cf. 
Welsh, Dydd Sul, " Sunday"), equated by the Romans with Minerva. 
The Saxon Chronicle calls it Bathan ceastcr, whence the Welsh Caer 
Vaddon. It fell for a while in 577 into the hands of the West Saxons ; 
afterwards the Htiiccii held it (H.B., 67). Romano-British Bath, 
when in ruins, is described in a Saxon poem of great beauty (An 
Ancient Saxon Poem, Bath, 1872), which reminds one very strongly of 
passages in the De excidio Britannice, 24, 26. 

Croyland, in the extreme south of Lincolnshire in the fens, founded 
by St. Guthlac, who died in 714. In Rhygyvarch's time it enjoyed 
extensive possessions throughout many midland counties. In the 
Domesday Survey "the property was valued in money at 57 is. 4^., 
and had increased by 3 zs. ^d. since the time of Edward the Con- 
fessor " (Victoria History, Lincoln, ii. 106). 

Repton, in the south of Derbyshire. The monastery certainly existed 
in the seventh century, for St. Guthlac (d. 714) received the tonsure there. 
Ethelbald, king of Mercia, was buried there in 755. It was a double 
monastery, governed by an abbess. "It is noteworthy that the 
monastery of Repton is almost universally spoken of as ' famous ' ; for 
instance, when Cynehard, King Sigebert's brother, was killed in battle 
with Cynewulf, king of Wessex, in 786, it is recorded that he was 
buried at Repton, ' quod tune nobile coenobium erat et famosum ' 
[because it was at that time a noble and famous monastery]. And 
again, when St. Wystan had been killed, we are told that his body was 
laid in the sepulchre of his grandfather, King Wiglaf, in the monastery 
of Repton, ' tune temporis famosissimum ' [at that time most famous]. 
And a charter of 874 is said to have been written in venerabili 
monasterio [in the venerable monastery] at Repton ; the charter is a 
grant to the Worcestershire Abbey of Bredon, by Berhtuulf, king of 
Mercia, at the instance of a certain ' Humberht princeps,' in whom 
we may probably see the 'Humbert dux,* to whom Cynewara, 
abbess of Repton, leased the lead mines of Wirksworth in 835 " 


(Victoria History, Derby, ii. 58). Repton "must have perished in 
874, when [Derbyshire] was overrun by the Danes " (ib., l). The later 
Austin priory at Repton, founded c. 1153, had no connection with the 
monastery referred to by Rhygy varch (ib. ). 

Colva, Radnorshire, now a chapel of ease (St. David's) under 
Glascwm. Though made dependent on the latter ecclesiastically, it 
continued to remain independent in civil matters. 

Glascwm, Radnorshire, The " Glas" seems to stand for "Clas," a 
monastic community (see note to 20), the whole meaning "the 
" valley das" Lhwyd (Parochialia, ii. 34) writes, "A river running 
through y e Klas or Glas Kwm." One of the two townships also, viz. 
Maenor Glas, seems to mean "the clas manor." One gathers from 
the value of Glascwm in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, A.D. 1291, that 
it was the most notable church in Elvael. It is, of course, dedicated to 
St. David. The manor of Glascwm appears as the property of the see 
of St. Davids in B.B. St. D., 291, 331. 

two-headed altar. This is apparently to be distinguished from the 
altar, which was kept at Llan Gyvelach, mentioned below. In the 
days of Gerald and the poet Gwynvardd, Glascwm was renowned for 
the holy bell, called "Bangu," which was kept there. The former 
(VI. 1 8) tells us "In Elvael at the Church of Glascwm is a portable 
Bell of very great virtue, which they call by a name of its own, Bangu, 
which also is said to have been St. David's" (see note to 48). 
Gwynvardd also (Y G., 82), praising "the two oxen of Dewi," who 
conveyed a gift to Glascwm, adds Edewid Bangu git gadwy naive, 
Beloved Bangu was left chained. 

Leominster, Herefordshire, on the river Lugg ; the Welsh Life (108), 
erroneously placing it on the Severn, calls it Llan Llieni. Leland (42) 
says, " Limstre of sum is caullid in Walsche, Llinlini, of flex or hempe 
growing therabout." The earliest reference to Leominster appears to 
be in the Saxon Chronicle at 1046, where mention is made of " the 
Abbess of Leominster." J. E. Southall in 1893 says (Wales and her 
Language, 18), "The writer has heard an old Radnorshire woman, 
hailing from Abbey Cwmhir, near Rhayader, repeat the doggerel, 
which she had heard many years before : 

* How many miles, how many 
Is it from Leominster to Llanllieni ? ' 

and he is assured that Leominster is still known by some Welsh people 
as Llanllieni." 

Gweut, the country lying between the Usk and the Wye, deriving its 
name from the ancient Venta Silurum, i.e. Caerwent. 

Raglan, Monmouthshire, in Upper Gwent. The church is now said 
to be St. Cadog's. 

Llan Gyvelach, Glamorganshire. This place derives its name from 
an otherwise unknown Cyvelach. Llan Gyvelach must have been an 
important centre of David's activities, and continued to be a great 
establishment of the bishops of St. Davids in Rhygyvarch's time. In 
it was kept the miraculous altar, reputed to have been sent from heaven 
(really, so Rhygyvarch assures us, from the Patriarch of Jerusalem by 

NOTES, 13, 14 83 

means of angels), which, covered with skins, had not been seen by 
mortal eye since Dewi's death (see 48 below). 

'Gower, the land between the Llwchwr and the Tawe from the foot 
of the Black Mountains to the extremity of the peninsula, which 
stretches westward from Swansea or Aber Tawe. 

Peibio, king of Erging, "called dauora-uc in British, in Latin 
spumosus, spumy" (B.LI., 78), for he spumed at the mouth, was the 
father of Evrddyl, who was the mother of St. Dubricius. He 
endeavoured to destroy his pregnant daughter by water and by fire, 
but in vain. His messengers found her "holding in her bosom a son, 
whom she had brought forth, at a stone, which has been placed on the 
spot to witness the wonderful nativity of the boy. The place is 
commonly called Matle [i.e. Madley, in Herefordshire, south of the 
Wye and near it], because the blessed man was born there." The story 
goes on to say that the touch of the infant's hands healed King Peibio 
of his drivelling disorder, wherefore he granted the child that place, 
Madley, where he was born. He afterwards proved a generous 
benefactor to the Church. As St. David, who is here recorded to have 
cured him of blindness, was a contemporary of Peibio, he must also have 
been a contemporary of St. Dubricius. And as the latter ordained 
St. Samson of Dol, who signed the decrees of a Council of Paris, 
c. 555-8, we have here additional evidence that St. David flourished in 
the second half of the fifth century. 

Erging, in English Archenfield, was the district bounded by the 
Wye, the Worm, and the Monnow. It is now included in Hereford- 
shire. The name is said to derive from the old Romano-British 
Ariconium, the site of which is near Weston Penyard (O's P., ii. 

Boducat and Mat/run. Among the sons of Brychan according to 
the Jesus Coll. MS. 20 is Marcharairjttn (or Marcharanhttn) 
ygkeueilyawc, M. in Cyveiliog, which name in the Cognacio Brychan 
is Martkacrun apud Keueilauc ( Y C., viii. 83, 91 ; xix. 29). Mr. 
Phillimore writes, "I have long thought that Marcharairjun was for 
Marthar Maitrun, that Cyveiliog was a mistake for Cedweli ( ' cezieiliauc 
for cetueli' or the like), and that the places meant were Meidrym and 
Ystrad Verthyr, both west of Llandyvaelog Church. I have also 
suspected that Mydrim parish (for older Meidrym, I think) might 
be for Maitrun made into Meidrym, and not meaning ' the middle 
ridge' or the like." It should be observed that in D.S.B., this name 
does not appear. But that there is some omission in this earliest list 
of Brychan's sons is evident from the words predicts Manm'e, of the 
aforesaid Mannia, which place, however, is here mentioned for the first 
time (YC., xix. 25-6). 

Cedweli, the westernmost of three cymwds, the other two being 
Carnwyllion, "the land of Carnwyll," and Gower, between the Towi 
and the Llwchwr. These three with the country eastwards as far as 
the river Usk constituted the ancient realm of Glywysing, " the land 
of Glywys," St. Cadog's grandfather. Cedweli gave its name to the 
present town of Kidwelly. 

14. Hen Vynyw. The only place of this name now known in 


Wales, and known too throughout the centuries, is in Ceredigion (see 
note 2), which was a land of four cantrevs, divided into ten cymwds, 
as follows : 

1. Cantrev Gwarthav, "the uppermost cantrev," also called 

(a) Geneu'r Glyn, N. of the river Clarach. 

(6) Pervedd, "middle" cymwd, between the Clarach and the 

(c) Creuddyn, between the Rheidol and the Ystwyth. 

2. Cantrev 

(a) Mevenydd, along the S. bank of the Ystwyth. 

(b) Anhuniog, S. of Mevenydd, along the coast, towards and 

beyond the river Aeron. 

(c) Penardd, S.E. of Mevenydd, being the S.E. angle of 

Ceredigion, both sides of the river Teivi. 

3. Cantrev 

(a) Caerwedros, a coast region as far as Llangrannog. 
(6) Mabwynion, inland, along the S. bank of the Aeron towards 

4. Cantrev 

(a) Iscoed, coastal to the Teivi, and along the latter to Llan 


(b) Gwynionydd, "land of Gwynion" along the Teivi till 

beyond the Cerdin. 

It is noticeable that no foundation of Dewi or Non is found in the 
four northernmost cymwds. Not till we come to Anhuniog do the Dewi 
churches begin, a district so called from Anhun ab Ceredig, Dewi's 
uncle (Y C. y xix. 27). The name Anhuniog stands for original 
Antoniac-a., the land of Antoniiis, later Anhun. The cymwd of 
Anhuniog met that of Mevenydd in the parish of Llanrhystud, which 
parish contains two townships : (i) Anhuniog on the coast, through 
which runs the river Wyre and in which stands the parish church ; 
and (ii) Mevenydd, which is inland. Anhuniog extends southwards 
beyond the river Aeron and includes Hen Vynyw. Formerly this must, 
I suppose, have been simply Mynyw, but afterwards, on the transference 
of the name to Vallis Rosina, was distinguished as Hen Vynyw, "the 
original Mynyw." I cannot but think that such a transference implies 
that Hen Vynyw was far more important in the career of St. David 
than is generally believed. That it was the scene of his childhood is 
expressly told us by Rhygyvarch, whose evidence, however, seems 
adverse to our believing that it was also the scene of his birth. The 
parish church of Hen Vynyw is now St. David's with a Ffynnon Ddewi, 
D.'s Well, close by, but the mention of Bishop Guistilianus as being a 
resident there, suggests that the foundation is older than Dewi. The 
bishop was fratmelis to Dewi, and by him perhaps, or with him, Dewi 
received his early training. Anyhow not far down the coast is Llan 
Ina, a foundation of St. Ina, Dewi's aunt ; still further down is Llan 
Grannog, the monastery of St. Carannog, Dewi's uncle, the friend of 
St. Patrick. From beyond the river Ystwyth to below the river Teivi 

NOTES, 14 85 

the country is dotted with well-known foundations of his cousins, Llan 
Avan, Nantcwnlle, Lampeter, St. Dogmael's, St. Dogwells, Llangeneu 
(in Clydai), being the churches of Avan, Gwynlle, Pedr, Dogvael, and 
Ceneu, all grandsons of Ceredig (Y C., xix. 27). It is not hard to 
believe from all this, to which much more could be added, that Dewi's 
home was at Hen Vynyw. And since no other Hen Vyny w has ever 
been proved to exist or to have existed (the reputed one near St. 
Davids being due to a bungle by Gerald in his reading of Rhygyvarch, 
see note lower down), it must be concluded that Hen Vynyw by the 
river Aeron was the place where Dewi received his early training. 

Guistilianus. In the twelfth century MSS., C.C.C.C., 161, N. and 
D., this name appears as Guisdianus ; in Gerald (III. 386) as Gistlianus ; 
and in the Welsh Life (108, no) as Goeslan, Gives/an and Gwestlan. 
In the oldest Welsh Calendar (c. 1200) quoted by Baring Gould and 
Fisher (L.B.S., i. 66), March 2 is given to Gistlian, and March 3, as 
in other Welsh calendars, to Non. In a fifteenth century MS., how- 
ever, though in a later hand, which has added a few Welsh saints, 
giving March 3 to Non, March 4 is given to Gistilian, doubtless an 
error for March 2, for in "a Demetian calendar" of the next century 
March 2 is "Gwyl Wthwl" or "Wrthwl" (ib., i. 67, 71; iii. 214), 
where Guistilianus is identified, or confounded, with Gwrthwl of Llan 
Wrthwl in Breconshire and Carmarthenshire. Doubtless, therefore, 
March 2 was the day of Guistilianus, as March 3 was certainly that 
of Non. 

Now George Owen (d. 1613) is quoted as saying (Survey, 53) that 
March 2 was Non's day, and that the ' ' next Day they keep also for 
Lily Gwds Dewy (i.e. Lily, St. David's Man)." Browne Willis (36), 
doubtless having accepted this statement, attributed to George Owen, 
says, " Formerly three Holy-days were kept at that Time, St. David's 
Day, upon March I ; St. JVun's Day (who is said to have been St. 
David's Mother) upon March 2 ; and St. Lily's Day (who, we are told, 
was St. David's Servant) upon March 3. There is a Tradition still 
preserv'd among the old People of the Place, That within these 
hundred Years, or not much earlier, at least many Years after the 
Reformation, these two Saints, St. Nun and St. Lily, had as much 
Honour paid them by the Country People, as St. David himself; and 
if any of them had been known to work upon any of those Days, it 
would have been esteemed as a very heinous Offence. Now only St. 
David's Day is observ'd." To all this it may be said, (i) that March 2 
as Non's Day contradicts all our other evidence ; and (2) that such a 
saint as "Lily Gwas Dewy" is nowhere else mentioned (L.B.S., iii. 
351). The whole statement attributed to George Owen seems to be a 
bungle. The writer has reversed the order of the festivals, which 
should have been March 2 " Lily Gwa"s Dewy" and March 3, St. Non ; 
whilst his "Lily Gwas Dewy" is a misreading of our Guistilianus and 
the Guisdianus above. I conjecture that "Gwas Dewy" has been 
manufactured from the latter, and that "Lily" is a misreading of 
"tili" placed interlineally above it. One need not doubt that 
formerly the three great holy days of David (March i), Guistilianus 
(March 2), and Non (March 3) were observed at St, Davids, The 


Welsh Life (no) mentions a Ffynnawn Gwestlan, "G.'s Well," now 
unknown, at St. Davids, from which, as from the observance of his 
day in the city, we would gather that St. David, on shifting from Hen 
Vynyw to Vallis Rosina, took Bishop Guistilianus with him. 

fratrtielis means generally "father's brother's son." In B.LI., 135, 
however, matritelis, "mother's brother's son" is certainly treated as 
meaning "mother's brother." So there is something to be said for 
regarding fratruelis as meaning "father's brother," or " uncle," as in 
Gerald (III. 386), Avho here has avunculus, uncle. In the Welsh Life 
(108) it is vrawt ffyd, "brother in the faith," where the translator, not 
knowing the word, treats it as connected with frater, brother, and 
fidelis, faithful. 

From the place where thou dost propose to serve. This place, where 
David had intended to build his chief monastery, is not mentioned. 
There is nothing in our text to indicate where it was. From early 
abridgments of the Life of St. David, such as N. and D. and C.C.C.C., 
161, we gather that it was somewhere near Vallis Rosina, for the angel 
is made to say, " Est autem alius prope locus, But there is another 
place near," which means there is another place, viz. Vallis Rosina, 
near to the spot David had been thinking about. Possibly the word 
prope, near, occurred in Rhygyvarch's autograph. 

Gerald, undoubtedly, had a text of the Life before him containing 
the words Est autem alius prope loctis, But there is another place near. 
To understand how he dealt with them, it will be well to translate the 
whole passage as he gives it, which is as follows (III. 386) : " These 
things being so done, the holy man, after a lengthy period of learning 
and teaching, returned home at last to the place from which he had 
started out, namely, Menevia. In that place there was then a bishop, 
his uncle, a venerable man, whose name was Gistliamts. To him, 
therefore, the nephew recounted angelic advice, which he had already 
received, after this manner, 'The place,' said the angel, 'in which 
thou proposest to serve God, is not acceptable to him, because from 
that spot he has foreseen little or no fruit for himself in the future. 
Veruntamen est alius non procul hinc locus, But there is another place 
not far from here,' pointing to Vallis Rosina, where to-day is a holy 
cemetery, 'far more suitable for religion and a sacred community.' 
From this place without doubt divine providence has chosen for itself 
very many treasures of faithful souls." 

It will be noticed (i) that Gerald has, without any warrant, substi- 
tuted Menevia, St. Davids, for Vet^ts Rubus, Hen Vynyw ; and (2) that 
for prope, near, i.e. near to the unknown site which David had thought 
of, he has suVistituted non procul hinc, not far from here, which means, 
if anything, that the Menevia to which Gerald makes St. David to 
return, was not far from Vallis Rosina. But Menevia is Vallis Rosina. 
Gerald has made nonsense of his original. 

The Welsh Life (108) says that David had meant to settle in Vetus 
Rubtis, for the angel is made to say, not " From the place where thou 
dost propose to serve," but "or lie hwnn," from this place, i.e. Vetus 

These passages in Gerald and the Welsh Life form the sole ground 

NOTES, 14, 15 87 

known to me for the attempts, made from time to time, to fix Hen 
Vynyw in the immediate neighbourhood of St. Davids. 

buried in the cemetery. Dr. Plummer (V.S.H., I. xciii.) reflects on 
an "unpleasant characteristic," which he finds in the Lives of Irish 
Saints, "in which spiritual blessings, including salvation itself, are 
made to depend on purely material conditions . . . such as burial in a 
certain cemetery. This is the commonest condition ; and the supersti- 
tion is probably responsible for the crowded condition of many Irish 
cemeteries to-day." This "unpleasant characteristic" is also found in 
the Lives of Welsh saints, as here, where an attempt is made to modify 
the grossness of the idea by the addition of the words sanafide, in sound 
faith, and in the Life of St. Cadog (C.J3.S., 44; see Selections). 

15 Aeddan, "who also in Irish is Maidauc" (Gerald, III. 387), 
the patron saint of Llawhaden, Nolton, and Haroldston West, all in 
Pembrokeshire. He is clearly identified by Rhygy varch ( 36-38, 42) 
with the celebrated St. Aeddan, founder and bishop of Ferns, County 
Wexford. So too in the various recensions of the Life of St. Aeddan 
is he made a contemporary and disciple of St. David. The earliest and 
best Life of the saint is the Latin one contained in the same British 
Museum codex as our present Life of St. David. It is translated from 
an earlier Irish Life. Its presence in this collection of Lives of saints 
chiefly British is accounted for by the reputed intimate connexion of 
St. Aeddan with St. Davids. By origin St. Aeddan of Ferns was a 
Connaught saint, but the chief sphere of his activity was in Southern 
Leinster (V.S.H., I. Ixxv.-lxxvii.). The name Aidan is a latinized 
form of Aedan, composed of Aed, one of the Irish words for " fire," 
and the diminutive suffix an. This makes in modern Welsh Aeddan. 
The Aidus and Aidzms of the Latin Life ( V.S.H., ii. 295-311 ; also, 
inaccurately, C.J3.S., 232-250) are formed from Aid, a latinizing of 
original Aed. The saint is equally well known by the hypoconstic 
form of his name, viz. Maedoc, which is reached by substituting the 
suffix oc, "young," for an, and prefixing the endearing syllable mo, 
"my." We thus get Mo-aed-oc, and the Welsh Maeddog, which last 
is to be carefully differentiated from the Welsh Madog ( " Madoc's 
Haven," for example, near Nolton, in St. Bride's Bay, should be 
" Maedoc's Haven"). The name Aeddan survives at St. Davids in 
that of the farm Trev Aeddan, " Aeddan' s homestead," locally called 
Treveiddan, between Clegyr Vwya and Forth Stinan; but whether 
after St. Aeddan does not appear. He is doubtless commemorated at 
Ffynnon Vaeddog, "Maeddog's Well," near Forth Mawr. 

Eiludd, better known as Teilo ( 44), which is the hypocoristic form 
of his name. Gerald (III. 387) has, " who also to-day is called Teliati. " 
The Life of St. Teilo (B.LL, 97-117), written by Geoffrey Stephen 
(ib., 360, col. i.), brother of Bishop Urban (d. 1133) of Llandaff, 
in the supposed interest of the episcopal see of Llandaff, tells us (ib., 
116) that Penally, neais Tenby, was the burying place of Teilo's 
ancestors, and that Teilo himself had hereditary right there ; also, that 
Teilo lived and died at a place on the River Towi, which we learn 
elsewhere (ib., 77, 135) to have been Llan Deilo Vawr. It may be 
said at once that there is no evidence whatever for the common opinion 


that Teilo was "Bishop of Llandaff," or indeed that he ever was at 
Llandaff, the site of which was granted not to him, but to St. Oudoceus, 
his reputed successor (ib., 159; O's P., ii. 285). In the list of the 
Bishops of St. Davids, as given by Gerald (VI. 102), Teilo's name 
appears second or third, but one can hardly doubt from the evidence of 
Geoffrey Stephen, that Teilo lived and died at Llan Deilo Vawr. He 
was born at Eccluis Gunniau or Guiniau in the cymwd of Penvro 
(B.LI., 124, 255), possibly St. Twinnels. We gatherfrom the Life of St. 
Oudoceus (ib., 130-9), who is described as the son of the exile prince, 
Budic of Cornugallia, in Brittany, who had fled to Dyved with his 
fleet in the time of Aircol Lauhir, son of King Triphunus ( 5), and 
who had there married Anaumed, daughter of Ensic and his wife 
Guenhaf, daughter of Liuonui, that he was nephew to Teilo (ib., 131). 
St. Teilo was his niatritelis (ib., 135), by which must be meant here 
" brother to his mother." Other and older sons of Budic and Anaumed 
were "Ismael and Tyfei the martyr, who lies in Pennalun" (ib., 130). 
The connections may be tabulated thus 

Ensic = Guenhaf, d. of Liuonui. 

St. Teilo Anaumed = Budic of Cornugallia 

I I f 

St. Ismael St. Tyfei St. Oudoceus 

In B. y S. (a), Teilo is affiliated to Ceredig, St. David's grandfather, 
through Ensych ab Hydun ; in (b} through Eusyllt ab Hidwn dwn ; in 
(c) through Enoc ab Etwin, where, however, for Teilo we have 
Tysiliaw, quite another person ; in (d) through Enoc ab Hedun dun. 
The variations here seem to me too serious to allow room for con- 
fidence. In P.K., Teilo does not appear at all, nor any such name as 
Hidwn or Etwin. The Eusyllt of B. y S. (b) above, said to derive 
from Auxilius, is clearly the saint of St. Issells, near Tenby. 

Geoffrey Stephen (B.LL, 98) says that he had read that Teilo had 
been instructed as a boy by St. Dubricius, and that afterwards (ib., 99), 
having heard of Pottlinus, he went to him, finding St. David studying 
under that master. These two, Teilo and David, formed a strong 
attachment, and were living together at St. Davids, when Bwya, who 
is not named, first arrived at that place (see Selections). The story of 
the female slaves ( 17 below) is told differently. Maeddog, too, is 
associated with Teilo at St. Davids. The story of the journey of 
Teilo, David, and Padarn to Jerusalem, is told to Teilo's greater glory. 
At the outbreak of the Yellow Plague, of which Maelgwn Gwynedd 
died, Teilo fled to Brittany, passing through Cornwall, where he met 
King Gerennius. In Brittany he was welcomed by St. Samson, "for 
they had sprung from the same district, and were men of one language, 
and were taught together by the blessed Dubricius, the archbishop, by 
the imposition of whose hand St. Samson was consecrated bishop." 
Budic of Cornugallia, his sister's husband, also welcomed him. After 

NOTES, 15 89 

seven years and seven months Teilo returned to Britain, where former 
disciples of Dubricius gathered about him ; but three of those named, 
to wit, Ysvael, Tyvai, and Oudoceus, were his own nephews, of whom 
at least one, Ysvael, had been like himself a disciple of St. David. 
Geoffrey Stephen says that Teilo raised Ysvael to the episcopate as 
successor to St. David, who in the meantime had died. Geoffrey of 
Monmouth (xi. 3) says that David was followed by "Cynog, bishop 
of the Church of JLlan Badarn," by whom he may have meant the bishop 
Cynog, whose death is recorded in the old Latin Welsh Chronicle at 
A.D. 606 ( F C., ix. 156), of whom nothing else seems to be known. 
Gerald (VI. 102) makes David's successor to have been Teilo himself 
(at least after Cynog, whose name he probably got from Geoffrey of 
Monmouth), whilst Geoffrey (ix. 15) makes Teilo, "an illustrious 
presbyter of Llandaff," to have succeeded St. Samson at Dol in 

Ysvael, nephew of St. Teilo (see last note). "Ysvael" is the 
modern form of older Ismael, and still older Osmail, the former of 
which survives in Llan Ishmael, in the old cymwd of Cedweli (see note 
to 13), is being regularly changed to isk in the dialects of S.W. 
Wales, as isha for isa(v), pishtill for pistyll, etc. The name, therefore, 
has nothing to do with the Biblical Ishmael. Nor is the older form 
Osmail to be confounded with the English Oswald. Nor again is 
Ysvael to be confounded with the saint of St. Issels, near Tenby, which 
stands for Usyllt, said to derive from Auxilius, who is identified with 
EnsiCj the father of St. Teilo, in B. y S. (d). To Llan Ishmael, in 
Cedweli, add the following churches ascribed to St. Ysvael, all in 
Pembrokeshire : Camros, Rhosmarket, Haroldston East, Lambston, 
and St. Ishmaels, in the cantrev of Rhos ; and Uzmaston in the cantrev 
of Dougleddeu. There is some doubt about Haroldston East, whether 
the saint may not be Usyllt. " Llan Ismael " in Rhos was one of the 
seven " bishop-houses " of Dyved (W.M.L., 121). It was also known 
as Eglwys Ysmael (A.L., i. 558) and Lan Yssan in JRos (id., ii. 790; 
cf. B.LI., 56, 62, 124, 255, 287). In a ninth century Dyved charter, 
mention is made of Cukelin, Abbot of Llan isan (O's P., ii. 428). 
Ysan is an abbreviated form of Ysvael, as Cadog of Cadvael, etc. 

Hodnant or Hoddnant. It is strange that Rhygyvarch nowhere 
calls St. Davids by any other name than Vallis Rosina. One would 
have expected to find Mynyw, or at least Rubus, seeing that he twice 
mentions Vetus Rubus or Hen Vynyw, but even Mcneuiensium, "of 
the Mynyw folk" ( 7), seems not to be Rhygyvarch's, but the work of 
a copyist c. 1200, who perhaps was conscious of the difficulty. It 
would appear, too, that neither Mynyw nor even Vallis Rosina was 
the popular name among- the Welsh in Rhygyvarch's day, for he says, 
"Vallis Rosina, which the Britons commonly call Hodnant." The 
name, Hodnant, is found elsewhere in Wales, as in the Life of St. 
Illtud, where it is said to mean vallis prospera, favourable valley 
(C.B.S., 163). Gwynvardd writes (F G., 83), Yn amgant Hotnant 
ormant oreu, Within Hodnant's bounds, overflowing, best ; the Welsh 
Life (108), " Hodnant that place is called." It is nowadays completely 
forgotten, the Welsh name for St. Davids being Ty Ddewi, " Dewi's 


House." I have thought that Vallis Rosina might represent the old 
Irish appellation. 

16. The Life of Teilo (B.LL, 99-101) gives a different account 
of Bwya (see Selections). 

chief lain, for Latin satrapa, satrap, which in the Welsh Life (no) 
becomes the name of Bwya's wife ! 
druid, magus. See note to 6. 

Bwya. The Latin text has Baia; Gwynvardd (Y G., 83) and 
Gerald (III. 387) call him, more rightly, Boia ; the Welsh Life (108) 
Boya. This yields modern Bwya, surviving in the place name Castell 
Clegyr Vwya, " the castle at Bwya's Rock." As vwya is dialectical for 
vwyav, the mutated form of mwyav, "biggest," Clegyr Vwya is often 
erroneously explained to mean "the biggest rock." " Clegyr" is 
apparently an old plural of dag (Gaelic clock, whence clachan, "a 
hamlet," like the Welsh maenor from maen), an obsolete word for 
a stone (O's P., i. 409). Clegyr Vwya lies not a mile to the 
S.W. of Vallis Rosina, and is described as a prong of igneous rock, 
commanding the Alun Valley (L.B.S., ii. 296). On Black Point in 
St. Bride's Bay and in the parish of Haroldston West, the church 
of which is Aeddan's, Dewi's disciple, are the remains of an ancient 
cliff castle, called in that locality "The Rath of Boia." " It covers 
about one and a half acres, and has an earth wall on the land side some 
two hundred yards long and quite forty feet high to-day." It is said 
locally that Bwya used this Rath or Fort in order to raid " the Slad 
Rath near Howelstone " in Talbenni parish, some four miles to the 
south. " The captives and booty secured could be lodged here until 
convenient to ship them to Porthclais " ( Guide to St. Brides Bay, 32). 
an Irishman. So too the Welsh Life (108), ac yscot oed, and he 
was a Scot, i.e. an Irishman.' Geoffrey Stephen (B.LI., 99-100) calls 
him a Pict, but no importance need be attached to this, as he is 
confessedly influenced by the De excidio Britannia, a work which has 
vitiated British history, since the time it was written and misunderstood 
in the early eighth century (see note to Gildas, 5). 

citadel, wrongly identified with Castell Clegyr Vwya, as by Jones 
and Freeman (244). Fenton (67) is right, who fixes the site at Castell 
Penlan, overlooking the Alun valley, not half a mile S.W. of Vallis 
Rosina. Castell Penlan was formerly known as Castell Caer Vwya, 
"the castle at Caer Vwya." The authority for this is Leland (64), 
who says, "The[re] remayne tokins of Caerboias Castel standing by 
Alen ryveret about a quarter of a myle lower then ' S. David on the 
same ryveret." This cannot be Castell Clegyr Vwya, which so far 
from being "by Alen ryveret" is some half a mile to the west of the 

There are two forts at Castell Penlan, one a perfect circle, and the 
other an imperfect rectangle. "In form and construction they are 
wholly heterogeneous, and may be suspected to be of different dates ' ' 
(J.F., 32). The circular camp is the more recent, as it cuts into the 
rectangle. The name " Caerboias Castel," which stands for the Welsh 
Castell Caer Vwya, proves that a later fortification was built at Caer 
Vwya " Bwya's Fort." This later fortification, the circular one, was 

NOTES, i6, 17 9i 

the Castcll; the older fort, the rectangular one, was Caer Vwya, the 
citadel, whence Bwya beheld that ominous smoke of the Christians, 
which rose from Vallis Rosina. 

The Latin word here translated "citadel" is arx, as also in 19. 
The codex C.C.C.C., 1 6 1, has arx and turris respectively ; so too Gerald 
(III. 387, 389). The Welsh Life (108, no) has creic vchel, high rock 
(which shows that the translator understood the place to be Clegyr 
Vwya, "Bwya's Rock," for doubtless in his day Castell Penlan had 
already long replaced the older Caer Vwya), and twr, which shows he 
was translating here from a text containing turris. 

17. female slaves, Latin ancillez. The ancilla is the common Latin 
equivalent for the Irish cumhal, female slave. In Irish law "the 
female slave was the prominent customary unit of payment [for murder 
and insult], and doubtless a common object of commerce and trade." 
"The cumhal was equated with three cows, but the payment was 
reckoned and stated in cumhals" (Seebohm's Tribal Custom in Anglo- 
Saxon Law, 97). 

Alun, nowadays Alan. See next for vallis Alun, the A. valley, 
and profunditas vallis, the bottom of the valley, where was the holy 
well of Merthyr Dunod, called in the Welsh Life (no) Ffynnon 
Ddunod, "D.'s Well." The whole of the winding stream, some six 
miles in length, is within the parish of St. Davids. It rises in the 
extreme N. E. , not far S. of Aber Iddi Bay, and emerges into the open 
amid reeds and rushes through an extensive tract of moorland called 
Dowrog, whose unreclaimed portions are now distinguished as Treteio 
Common, Dowrog Common, etc., the haunts of the moorhen and other 
wild -fowl. The stream flows parallel, some mile or so to the S., with 
the northern coastline, till a little past Cam Pen Biri, "Kite's Head 
Rock," over 570 feet in height, when it begins to wind through the 
moor of Treleddid Vawr in a half-circle in the direction of Vallis Rosina 
and Virival. Here its course is through a comparatively deep ravine, 
until it disembogues at Forth Clais. The river Alun is crossed by 
several bridges, as "Pont y Gwrhyd," on what seems to have been the 
old road north-eastwards from St. Davids, which skirts the above- 
mentioned extensive moorland of Dowrog, doubtless to avoid it ; 
" Pont Pen Arthur," the bridge at "Arthur's End," on a road which 
branches to Whitesand Bay from the Whitchurch-St. Davids road, and 
which lies below the highest hill in the parish, nearly 600 feet, Cam 
Lleity, "the Lleity Rock," so called from a farmhouse of that name 
on its southern slope, the Laythte, i.e. llaethdy, dairy, of B.B. St. 2)., 
62 ; " Pont y Pen yd " on an old trackway that enters the close by the 
north or Boning's Gate, which trackway is called Meidr Dywyll, 
" dark lane," till where it touches the last-mentioned road, after which 
till the Waun Vawr it is called (so I was told) Meidr Saint, "saints' 
lane"; "Cloisters Bridge"; "College Bridge" on another road to 
Whitesand Bay ; Pont y Virival, over which westwards one reaches 
Forth Stinan, "St. Justinan's Creek," on Ramsey Sound, passing 
Clegyr Vwya on the left ; and lastly a foot-bridge, formed of a single 
slab, whereby one crosses westwards to the site of Capel y Pistyll, 
"the Spout Chapel," where Gerald says St. David was baptized. 


Gerald (VI. 107, 109) describes the water of the Alun as " muddy 
and unproductive," which, however, in the time of Bishop David II. 
(11471176) flowed with wine. And perhaps, if the name "Merry- 
vale" is old, this is what it means, "Anglo-Saxon myre, Middle 
English mure, mire," as elsewhere (Trs. Bristol and Gloucester Arch. 
Soc., xxxix. 166). George Owen says the stream was famous for big 
trout of unnatural tameness (O's P., i. 100). 

1 8. This and the following section are abridged as follows in the 
C.C.C.C., 161 : "On the next day the same woman, having become 
mad, was no more found, her innocent step-daughter having first been 
slain, on the site of whose martyrdom a fountain, a restorer of health, 
sprang up. And the aforesaid man, struck by an unexpected enemy, 
perished. His turris, castle, burnt by fire sent from heaven, is over- 
thrown. For it was meet that that destruction should overtake him, 
who was threatening the man of God with slaughter, and that he who 
was pitiless to the servants of God, should have pitiless vengeance fall 
on himself." 

Gerald too (III. 389) compresses as follows : "The disciples, there- 
fore, being calmed at the admonitions of the father, the woman shortly 
after, becoming mad, destroyed her innocent step-daughter. And so, 
struck by divine wrath, and rushing about in disordered fury, she 
shortly ceased to be. Boia also, slain by an enemy, whose name was 
Leschi, his turris, castle, being consumed by fire sent from heaven, did 
not escape divine vengeance." 

cucumeri. In W. M. Lindsay's The Corpus Glossary, 1921, p. 50, 
cttcumis is given the meaning of "poppy." Even if we assume that 
cucumeri is a mistake for cucumeres, this meaning gives no sense, for 
our cucumeri contain nuces, nuts. 

Dunod. That this is a Christian name from the Latin Donat-z., 
points to the conclusion that her father, Bwya, was no stranger to the 
Church. According to the tradition, preserved by Geoffrey Stephen 
(see note to 16), he was actually received into the Church, and all his 

It is remarkable that the name Dunod, which may also derive from 
Donat-MS, the masculine form, is applied by Gerald (III. 381) to the 
"old man called Criumther" of 3 above, whom St. Patrick raised 
from the dead at Forth Mawr. 

Merthyr Dunod, somewhere in the Alun valley ; in the Welsh Life 
(no) Ffynnon Ddunod, " D.'s Well." Neither name is now known 
at St. Davids. Merthyr Dunod would seem to have meant originally, 
simply "saint Dunod." When this Irish signification of mertkyrvias 
being forgotten, stories of martyrdom were being imagined and invented 
to account for the name. This appears to have been done by the 
author of the De excidio Britannia, 10, who mentions the graves and 
passion sites of martyrs of both sexes, referring to the many merthyr 
place-names scattered throughout "Britannia," which had tended to 
disappear with the decay of the Irish language in Britain. The 
following are instances, which I have collected from B.LL, and 
elsewhere, which could easily be extended : 

S.E. Wales: Merthyr Buceil, Merthyr Dyvan, Merthyr Glywys, 

NOTES, 18-20 93 

Merthyr Ilan, Merthyr Myvor, Merthyr Tydvil, Merthyr Onbrit 
(Glamorganshire) ; Merthyr Cynvall, Merthyr Dingad, Merthyr 
Gerein, Merthyr lulius ac Aron, MerthjT Maches, Merthyr Tegveddj 
Merthyr Tewdrig (Monmouthshire) ; Merthyr Clydog (Herefordshire) ; 
Merthyr Cynog, Merthyr Issiu (Breconshire). 

S.W. Wales : Merthyr Celer, Merthyr Tydystl, Merthyr, Merthyr 
Cynog,. Ystrad Verthyr (Carmarthenshire) ; Matbry, Merthyr Dunod, 
Merthyr Tyvai, Martletwy (Pembrokeshire). 

N. W. Wales : Merthyr Caffo (Anglesey) ; Merthyr Meirion 
(Criccieth, Carnarvonshire) ; Merthyr (Llanddanwg, Merionethshire). 

Some of these persons may have met with violent deaths in the 
cause of the Church, but the normal signification of the word mtrtkyr 
in these and doubtless very many lost instances is simply "saint" 
(so Anwyl in y Beirniad, ii. 135 ; Y C. , xxvii. 50). It is to be observed 
that they are found in those parts of Wales where Irish influences are 
known to have prevailed. They are very rare, or quite absent, else- 
where. Like the post-Roman inscribed stones with .rude Latin 
capitals, which were monuments characteristic of the Irish portions of 
Wales (Lloyd, 114-5), so the merlhyr place-names are confined to 
those same portions. 

The story of Dunod' s martyrdom is perhaps due to the catholic 
interpretation of the word merthyr ; and this is somewhat supported by 
Gerald, who gives what may be another version of the story, in which 
Dunod is not a martyred virgin, but the old man at Whitesand Bay, 
whom Patrick raised from the dead unless there was a Donatus at 
Forth Mawr and a Donata in the Valley. 

19. Lisci, or Lcschi as he is called by Gerald (III. 389), is remem- 
bered at Forth Lisci, " Lisci's Creek " on the coast, W. of Porthclais. 
Both Castell Clegyr Vwya and Castell Fenian (where was Caer Vwya, 
the scene of Bwya's death) lie between Forth Lisci and Vallis Rosina. 
There is some evidence that Lisci had a fort on Picton Point, where 
the Western and Eastern Cledde meet, some four miles S.E. of 
Haverfordwest, called Caer Lisci. Rhys identified Lisci with Lonsce, 
a name that appears in an Irish tale (O's P., i, 411). 

20. the monastic community. The Latin is monastica dassis. 
From dassis, doubtless, is derived the Welsh das, a religious com- 
munity, a very important word and institution in the old British Church. 
Indeed it may be said that it is the key to the understanding of the 
organization of the Church in Wales for many centuries of its life. In 
certain striking passages in the Laws of Howel the Good (d* 950), the 
nature of the das is made quite clear. Thus we read : " Whosoever 
shall do wrong to a mother church, let him pay fourteen pounds, one 
half to the abbot, if he be an ecclesiastic acquainted with letters, and 
the other half between the priest and the das" (A.L., i. 78). In what 
appears to be a later recension of this passage, the word kynnonwyr, 
canons, is substituted for das, and there is added, "in like manner 
everything is to be shared, which comes to the Saint as offering" (to., 
432, 434; ii. 842). Other sections of the Laws inform us that, "when 
the abbot dies, the das and the canons should have his chattels" (ib., 
i. 10 ; Y C., xvii. 135). Again, in a passage concerning the relics and 



ornaments of ,a church, we are told that the claswyr ar personeit, the 
das-men and the parsons, are the owners of the church ; or, as another 
version has it, y das ae phersonyeit, the das and its parsons (A.L., 
ii. 66, 98). Such passages throw much light on the organization of the 
Church in Wales before the Norman French arrived with their later 
continental ideas and methods. The old " mother churches " up and 
down Wales were all of them under an abbot, who ought to be, 
although apparently it was sometimes not so, a more or less learned 
ecclesiastic. Each of these abbots had a das to rule, and each das 
was provided with at least one priest to celebrate the sacraments. The 
das of Bangor and the clas of St. Beuno at Clynnog Vawr in Arvon 
are mentioned in the Law Book of Gwynedd (ib., i. 106), and the 
das of St. Davids in the History of Gruffudd ab Cynan (d. 1137), 
where we read that Gruffudd landed from Ireland at Porthclais near 
ardiescopty Mynyw, the "archbishop-house" of Mynyw, and was 
received there by Rhys ab Tewdwr (d. 1083), king of the "southern 
part" of Wales, also by the bishop, and his "teachers," and the 
whole das of the Lord Dewi and of the Church of Mynyw (Jones' 
Hist, of G. ap Cynan, 124). Gerald also (III. 153) mentions the 
glaswir [more rightly daswir] of St. Davidjs, whom Bishop Bernard 
(1115-1147) converted into " canons." He says that Bernard " found 
the Church of Menevia altogether rude and disorganized. For the 
derici, clerics, of that place, who were called Glaswir, that is, 
ecclesiastical men, lived irregularly on the possessions of the Church, 
having barbaric customs, without order and rule. He first instituted 
canons," etc. The das of Holyhead and that of Llanynys are also 
specifically mentioned (Lloyd, 205-6). Moreover, the word das enters 
into place-names, proving that the institution was in working order at 
Glasbury, in Welsh Y Clas ar Wy, the das on the river Wye ; at 
Vaenor Glas in Glascwm, which itself seems to contain the word ; 
at Clas Garmon in St. Harmons ; at Clas in Llangyvelach ; at Treclas 
in Llanarthney ; at Traean Glas in Llywel ; and at Glasgow, which in 
the Life of St. Kentigern is called Glasgu and interpreted carafamilia, 
"the dear community" (Metcalfe's revision of Pinkerton's Lives of the 
Scottish SS., 1889, ii. 27). Numerous monastic churches are mentioned 
in the Book of Llan Dav, such as Llancarvan, Llantwit Major, Llan- 
dough near Cardiff, Caerwent, Moccas, Garway, Welsh Bicknor, 
Llandogo, Dewchurch, Bishopston in Gower, and Penally, the heads 
of which are called abbots or ' ' princes " as in Ireland, where princeps 
was used for the Irish airchindech, " erenagh," abbot (V.S.H., ii. 385). 
The Latin Welsh Chronicle mentions a princeps, "prince" or abbot 
of Abergele ( Y C., ix. 165). Lloyd (206) discovers an abbot of Towyn 
in Meirionydd, and there was an abbot at Llandinam in the mid- 
twelfth century. Prepositus, "provost," is also used for abbot 
(C.B.S., 92). 

A remarkable passage in the Laws of Howel (A.L., i. 556-, 558 ; ii. 
790, 869), upon which the foregoing remarks throw light, although it 
carries difficulties of its own, is the following, which I translate from 
the simplest form (W.M.L., 121) : "There are seven bishop-houses in 
Dyved ; [Mynyw], and Mynyw is the chief in Wales, [and] Llan 

NOTES, 20, 21 95 

Ismael, and Llan Degeman, and Llan Ussyllt, and Llan Teilaw, and 
Llan Teulydawc, and Llan Geneu. The abbots of Teilaw and Teuly- 
dawc and Ismael and Degeman should be ordained scholars. Twelve 
pounds is the heriot of every one of these, and to the Lord of Dy ved it 
is paid, and those who succeed them, are to pay it. Free is Mynyw 
from every due. Llan Geneu and Llan Ussyllt are free from that due, 
because they have no land. Whosoever shall affront one of those 
abbots, let him pay seven pounds to him, and let there be a washer- 
woman from his kindred, as a reproach to the kindred and as a 
memorial of the vengeance." The seven monasteries seem to be 
(i) St. Davids, (2) St. Ishmaels, (3) Rhoscrowther, (4) St. Issels, 
(5) Llandeilo (near Maenclochog), (6) Llandeulyddog (in Carmarthen), 
(7) Llangeneu (in Clydai). As they are all within the confines of the 
diminished Dyved of the ninth century, called Rheinwg, the arrange- 
ment does not appear to be earlier. What precisely is meant by 
"bishop-house" does not appear, but the monastic character of the 
system is clear. 

In certain memoranda of a ninth-century Demetian charter, which 
perhaps confirmed or renewed donations to St. Davids two centuries 
previously (rescued by Leland, and annotated by Phillimore in O'.s P., 
ii. 428-430), references are made to abbots of Carmarthen (the Llan 
Deulyddog above), Penally, St. Ishmaels, and also Llan Sanfrigt, 
which is doubtless St. Brides in Roose, whence St. Bride's Bay is 
called. Gwynvardd ( Y G., 82), speaking of St. Davids, says : 

Giaeleisy glas, ac vrtas vrtedic haelon, 

I saw a " clas," and a hierarchy of generous clerics. 

21. What now follows till 31 is of the highest value in revealing 
the kind of life which monks of Britannia, or Wales, idealized in pre- 
Norman times. These sections are written whilst St. Davids was still 
being ruled by independent bishops of Welsh appointment, and whilst 
the old monastic life of the Church in Wales was still in force, for 
Rhygyvarch died in 1099, *". e. sixteen years before the see of St. Davids 
was occupied by the Norman French Bernard, whom the Norman 
French masters of England thrust upon the diocese. 

Rhygyvarch impresses upon us that the cenobitical life at St. Davids \ 
was one of extreme rigour and austerity ; and doubtless it was from j 
St. Davids and similar Welsh monasteries, but especially from St. j 
Davids, where dwelt the head of the Watermen, that such a life was / 
adopted and copied in Ireland. Dom Butler says, that "in spite of | 
all difficulties of climate, the Irish hermits successfully rivalled in their | 
extraordinary penances and austerities and vigils the hermits of Egypt, | 
and even those of Syria" (Cambridge Medieval History, i. 534). And / 
here in 3 1 of the Life of St. David (though Dom Butler does not : 
mention it, ignoring all Welsh evidence) we have Rhygyvarch stating 
explicitly that St. David, t( imitating the monks of Egypt, led a life 
similar to theirs." There were monasteries, however, less strict than 
St. Davids (Williams' Gitdas, 264) ; and the Watermen's excess of 
asceticism did not pass unchallenged. "The Lord calls blessed those 


who hunger and thirst, not for -water with scorn of others, but for 
righteousness" (ZP., 260). 

"for he who labours not." No monk could be an idler. They 
believed that present toil meant future rest ; that they who could work 
were to do so in order to help those who could not, that is, the young, 
the old, and the sick ; that they ought not to consume in idleness the 
fruits of other people's labours, for the Church also said, "Let none of 
you eat the bread of idleness." All these reasons for labouring are 
given here or in the Life of St. Cadog (C.B.S., 35). 

apathy, accidie. This was reckoned one of the seven deadly sins, 
which appears as llcsgedd and diogi in one of the first books, printed in 
Welsh, Yny Ihyvyr hwnn, 1546 (reprinted by Principal J. II. Davies, 

22. Here we have a clear picture of the rigour which was 
challenged by St. Gildas. The use of oxen for ploughing was abjured. 
The monks place the yoke on their own shoulders. Each is an ox to 
himself and his brethren. It sometimes happened that monks would 
forsake their own less strict monasteries for those where stricter 
discipline was imposed upon them, such as St. Davids. Gildas had no 
sympathy with such leanings. Let those indeed who have quitted 
monasteiies governed by disreputable abbots be welcomed by other 
abbots. But not so if the suspected abbots were still received at Holy 
Communion and had not been excommunicated for infamy. Then 
Gildas proceeds, ' c How much more ought we not to receive monks 
who come from holy abbots, who are in no way suspect, except that 
they possess cattle and vehicles, either on account of the custom of their 
country or their own weakness things which do less hurt to their 
owners, if they hold them with humility and patience, than to those, 
who drag ploughs and dig mattocks into the ground with presumption 
and arrogance " (Williams' Gildas, 262). 

24. It is clear from this section that at St. Davids the food was 
measured out to the monks, even bread, in accordance with their age 
and strength, "for too much, though it be of bread only, produces 
wantonness," and "one must not weigh out to all in equal measure." 
That this was done in the strictest monasteries is proved from Gildas, 
who inveighs against it (Williams' Gildas, 258, 260). He rebukes 
those monks who, owing to their austerities, despise others. "These 
men " (says he), "whilst eating bread by measure, glory for this beyond 
measure." " Better are those who do not abstain beyond measure 
from what God has created. " 

bread and herbs. In 2 we have been told that David the Waterman 
lived on bread and water only. This was followed by all the bishops 
of St. Davids until Morgeneu (d. 999) broke the custom (Gerald, VI. 
104). For five centuries, therefore, this excess continued at Vallis 
Rosina, until wiser counsels prevailed. Even then the change did not 
occur without protest, for the tragic death of Bishop Morgeneu at the 
hands of the Scandinavian pirates was attributed to his departure from 
the old rule. Doubtless the example of the early bishops was followed 
by their monks, who abstained from the use of flesh. This too is con- 
demned by St. Gildas, who says that better are they who preserve a 

NOTES, 24, 27, 31 97 

clean heart "than those who eat no flesh," regarding themselves as 
superior to others (Williams' Gildas, 258). 

27. sabbath, that is, of course, Saturday. The monks of St. Davids 
did not confuse the sabbath with the Lord's Day. These devotions, 
therefore, incredible as it may sound, extended from Friday evening 
till dawn on Sunday with the exception of one hour after matins on 
Saturday. St. <;Gildas, as he demurs against the pride engendered by" 
the customs of measuring out bread, restricting all drink to water, and 
all food to dry dishes, demurs also against the lengthening of vigils. 
" They give preference to fasting over love, to vigils over righteousness, 
to their own imagination over harmony, to the cell over the church, to 
severity over humility, in fine to man over God. They are bent not 
on what the Gospel, but on what their own will commands ; not what 
the Apostle, but what pride teaches ; without observing that the 
position of the stars in heaven is unequal, and that the offices of angels 
are unequal. These fast, which profits nothing, unless they follow 
after other virtues " (Williams' Gildas, 260-1). 

31. the Egyptian monks. Monachism, as a great movement in the 
Christian Church, began in Egypt at the commencement of the fourth 
century. Its leaders were St. Anthony and St. Pachomius. The 
former, born c. 250, "left the world" c. 270; in c. 285 he took up 
his abode in a deserted fort at Pispir on the eastern bank of the Nile. 
In 305 he came out of his seclusion to become the first organizer of 
Christian monachism. He is the father of the eremites, in Welsh 
meudwyaid, "servants of God." St. Pachomius, born a pagan c. 290, 
converted c-. 310, founded his first monastery at Tabenissi, near 
Denderah, c. 315. This is reckoned the first monastery properly so 
called, where the ascetics lived together in one place. Such a 
monastery was known in Welsh later as mynachdy "monk's house," 
and mynachlog from the Latin monachi locus, "monk's place " ; ty 
"house " and Hog "place," were also used to signify the same thing. 
In Wales the more general name for a monastery was llan, "place," 
a translation of locus. The meaning of llan became so restricted in the 
sense of monastery that, whenever used to denote any other sort of 
place, a noun was prefixed to mark the special signification, vsydlan, 
"the place of corn," coedlan "the place of wood," etc. In process 
of time, as the llan became more of a church than a monastery, it came 
to bear its modern meaning of " church." 

From Egypt monachism spread westwards. Before the end of the 
century it is found in Italy and Spain, but its chief strength in the 
West was in Gaul. St. Martin of Tours is the true founder of Gallic 
monachism. He practised the monastic life before being made bishop 
in 372. Nearly ten years previously he had established a monastery 
near Poitiers. Afterwards he founded another outside Tours, called 
in time Marmoutier. Here he gathered eighty monks and lived with 
them. Before his death on November II, 395, the N.W. of Gaul was 
dotted with monasteries. 

The earliest British monks known to me are Pelagius the heretic, 
Puplicius, son of the tyrant Maximus (killed 388), Nynias, and Constans, 
son of the tyrant Constantine (killed 411). St. Puplicius, or, as he is 


now known in Welsh, St. Peblig, founded the monastery of Llan Beblig 
in the old deserted Roman fort of Segontium, near Carnarvon. Nynias 
is the well-known founder of Whithern in Galloway, who called his 
church after St. Martin. 

In c. 410 there was a very fine outburst of monachism in S.E. Gaul 
under St. John Cassian and St. Honoratus near Marseilles and in the y 
small island of Lerins, over against Cape Cannes. The work of these 
men profoundly influenced the British Church. At Lerins for a while 
lived the holy youth, who was afterwards to shine as St. Patrick, the 
Apostle of Ireland. In 433 a Briton, Faustus, became Abbot of 
Lerins, who was the son of the celebrated Vortigern (H.B., 48). 

32. Constantine, king of the Cornishmcn. This is clearly the man, 
who figures in J3. y S. as Custennin Gorneu, i-e. C. the Cornishman. 
In B. y S. the saints are grouped according to their families, and so we 
find those of the Cornish stock, to which Constantine belonged. But 
here very evident marks of dislocation are seen. It looks as though 
there was here some difficulty even in the original draft of the docu- 
ment, which copyists could not overcome ; and this explains the un- 
certainty which has hitherto attended the name of Constantine. It 
will be well, therefore, to give the briefs relating to the family as they 
appear in each of the four early copies. They are as follows : 

(a) Kyby m. Selyf m. Gereint m. Erbin m. Custennyn Gorneu m. 
Yestin m. Gereint m. Erbin m. Custennyn Gorneu. 

(Here follows Padric.) 
(&) Kybi m. Selyf m. Geraint m. Erbin m. Custenin Corneu. 

(Here follows Padric. ) 

(c) Kybi ap Selyv ap Gereint ap Erbin ap Custennin Goreu. 

(Here follows Padric.) 
lystin ap Gereint brawt Kustennin. 

(d) Kybi mab Selyf m. Gereint m. Erbin m. Custennin Gorneu. 

(Here follows Padric.) 

The marks of uncertainty on the part of the copyists are shown, in 
(a) by the loose m. at the end of Kyby's brief; in (6) and (d) by the 
omission of Icstin ; and in (<r) by the hesitation of the copyist, who first 
passed over lestin, whose brief he could not reconcile with that of 
Kybi, and then gave it as he found it. No doubt the intention of the 
original compiler of B.yS. was to give the three (or four) well- 
known saints of the family of " Geraint ab Erbin." These are Cybi, 
Constantine, lestin (and Cyngar) ; and in truth the " Custennyn 
Gorneu m." of (a) is really the beginning of Constantine's brief, so 
that the original order must have been as follows : 

Kyby m. Selyf m. Gereint m. Erbin. 
Custennyn Gorneu m. [Gereint m. Erbin]. 
Yestin m. Gereint, brawt Custennyn. 
[Cyngar . . .] 

But even so the pedigrees are erroneous, for in the Life of St. Cybi 
(C.B.S., 183 ; L.B.S., iv. 379) the saint's pedigree is given as Cybi m. 
Selyv m. Erbin m. Geraint m. Lud. Welsh pedigrees of Cornishmen 

NOTES, 32 99 

are less likely to be original than Cornish ones ; and as Geraint is 
called in the romances the son of Lac, there can be no doubt that the 
Life of St. Cybi, which makes him the son of Lzed, records the genuine 
pre-Conquest Cornish-Breton tradition. The "Gereint ab Erbin," 
therefore, of Welsh writers is a twelfth-century mistake, a curious but 
not otherwise unknown one (O's P., ii. 285) for Erbin filius Gereint, 
which was treated as meaning "Erbin's son, Geraint" instead of what 
it is, namely, Erbin son of Geraint. It follows from this that the 
pedigrees in B.y S. should read : 

Kyby m. Selyv m. Erbin m. Gereiut [m. LudJ. 
Custennyn Gorneu m. Erbin m. Gereint [m. Lud]. 
Yestin m. Erbin, brawt Custennyn 
[Cyngar . . .] 

The same curious error caused Welsh writers to mistranslate 
Constantinus filius Erbin into " Constantino's son, Erbin," whence 
the erroneous Erbin uab Custennyn, E. son of C., of the mediaeval 
romance ( White Book Mabinogion, 205 ff. ; Red Book, Guest's Trs., 
ed. by E. Rhys, 1906, pp. 236 ff.). The legendary Goreu mob 
Custennin (ib., 221, etc.) is also doubtless deduced from our Custennin 
Gorneu, misread as C.fiiiiis Goreu, mistranslated "C.'s son, Goreu." 

In addition to "Erbin," Geraint had a once famous son, Cadwy, 
from whom are named (so Phillimore thinks) the various Cadburys in 
the Devonian 'peninsula, which Cadwy had a son Peredur ( Y C., 
xi. 90), who again was father of Teudur (ib., viii. 86), doubtless the 
"Theodoric, king of Cornwall," who figures in the Lives of St. Kea, 
St. Fingar, and St. Pedrog, and who lived at Gudern in the parish of 
Ks&(L.B.S., i. 31; ii. 224-6; iii. 27; iv. 98). Cadwy is described 
in the first Life of St. Carannog (C.B.S., 99-100) as reigning with 
Arthur at Dindraithou, somewhere in the Devonian peninsula, to 
which fortress Arthur and Carannog, Dewi's uncle, brought the serpent 
of Carrum to show Cadwy. Afterwards Cadwy and Arthur found 
Carannog's altar at the mouth of the river Willet in Somerset, near 
which, at Carhampton, the saint built a monastery on land given to 
him by Cadwy. This is without doubt the historic Arthur. Now as 
Arthur fell in A.D. 492 according to the chronology, which Geoffrey 
of Monmouth unwittingly followed, and which therefore for us is more 
credible (Y C., xxii. 129), Cadwy must have flourished in the fifth 
century, which indeed is otherwise clear in that Cadwy and Arthur 
were contemporaries of St. Carannog, who, as we have seen (note to 
3), followed Bishop Patrick to Ireland in 432. 

In no early authority known to me is St. Cyngar given as son of 
Geraint. His name does not appear at all in the oldest copies of 
B y S. , but only in late fifteenth and sixteenth century texts, such as 
the Peniarth MSS. 27, Part II. 127, and 74, where he is described as 
brother of "Selyv ab Geraint," who, as we have seen, should be 
Selyv ab Erbin. That he was the brother of Selyv, however, may 
perhaps be accepted on this evidence. In the Life of St. Cybi (C.B.S., 
1834 ; L.B.S., iv. 3801) it is said that St. Cyngar was consobrinits, 
which here must mean "kinsman" to St. Cybi, and also, although an 


old man, his disciple. In the Life of St. Cyngar (N.L.A., i. 248 ff.) 
he is made to have been the son of "a Constantinople Emperor," 
which indicates that the author of this somewhat jejune stuff knew ' 
something of his connexion with Constantine the Cornishman. Cyngar, 
remembered in Congresbury, Somerset, was called Doccuinus among 
the Britons, which name survives in Llandough near Cardiff, and in 
another Llandough near Cowbridge. He is often identified with the 
Docus of the eighth century Catalogue of Irish Saints (s., cols. 161-4). 
In the Life of St. Pedrog (JV.L.A., ii. 317-320) the conversion of 
Constantine, who according to traditions preserved by Leland (L.B.S., 
iv. 98) was reigning contemporaneously with Theodorus, i.e. Tewdwr 
ab Peredur ab Cadwy, and made with him grants, of land to St. Pedrog, 
is attributed to the latter. The following scheme will assist us to 
place these several members of this important family : 









far-off country. This need only be far from Dyved. On the river 
Wye in Erging is Llangustennin Garth Benni, now Welsh Bicknor, 
called after Constantine, the father-in-law of Peibio, Dubricius' grand- 
father (2?.Z/., 72, 275-6). In Carnarvonshire, W. of the river 
Conway, is Llan Gustennin. There were monasteries of St. Constantine 
in Cornwall, Constantine Church, W. of Padstow, and Constantine, 
S.W. of Falmouth; and in Devon, Milton Abbot, by the river Tamar, 
near Bradstone (St. Non) and Lezant (St. Sant). 

33. at a place very near. Gerald (III. 390) has, " the place of the 
cemetery." Jones and Freeman (232) identify it with "St. Mary's. 
Well, which rises near the east end of the Cathedral, and of which the 
water runs through the crypt of the College Chapel ; there can be no 
doubt that this was the spring which, in the days of Giraldus, was 
supposed to have risen to supply the use of the church, at the prayer of 
its patron saint, and to have been the scene of miracles even in that 
age," for Gerald (III. 390) says, "found indubitably in our day to 
distil milk on occasions." And in his Itinerary (VI. 109) he says, 
"This seems a notable thing to me, that in our time, namely, whilst 
David II. was presiding [1147-1176], this river flowed with wine ; and 
the spring, which they call Pistyll Dewi, that is, the Pipe of David, 
because the spring flows off into the churchyard from the east as 
through a kind of pipe, distilled milk. It is agreed that on occasions 
it has been so found." In 1866 Sir Gilbert Scott and his employers 

NOTES, 33, 34 101 

took it upon them to have this sacred fountain blocked up (Henry 
Evans' Hist, and Giiide to St Davids, 58). 

other sweet waters. Here the Welsh Life (no) has, "After that, 
Bishop Gweslan, brother in the faith to Dewi, and a disciple of Dewi, 
who was called Elitid, both fasted to obtain from God wells of fresh 
water, for there was not any water in the city ; and owing to the 
drought of the time. And then they obtained from God two wells. 
And they are called to this day Ffynnawn Gwestlan and Ffynnawn 
Eliud. And the lame, and the blind, and the sick obtained deliverance 
in those two wells." The two saints are Guistilianus ( 14) and 
Eiludd (or Teilo). The two wells are now unknown by these 

On Quickwell Hill outside the Close is Ffynnon y Ciaciull, " the 
Gowl Well," from the cowl-like arched covering built over it, with 
which compare Ffynnon Gapan, "Cope Well," in Llan Llawer church- 
yard, above the river Gwaun. A "White Well" gave name to a 
chapel, a short distance S.E. of the Close. Near St. Non's Chapel is 
her Well. Near St. Justinan's Chapel on Ramsey Island is St. Jus- 
tinan's Well. At Forth Mawr is Ffynnon Vaeddog, " St. Maeddog's 
Well." Geoffrey Stephen in his Life of St. Teilo (B.LI., 103), 
although he mentions the miraculous wells at St. Davids, and had 
even heard " from old inhabitants of that place " that they yielded 
wine of sweet flavour, does not associate any particular well with St. 

34. our land. Gerald (III. 390) says this was at JBreudi, where is 
" a church founded in honour of St. David." It is now called Brawdy, 
pronounced "Broady," in Welsh Breudeth, some seven miles to the 
west of the cathedral. 

bachall, pastoral staff; in Welsh bagl or bagal, from Latin bacitlum. 
It was a simple staff with a crook. The bachalls of the saints were 
possessed of wonder-working powers. Like their bells, too, they were 
named. Thus in the Life of St. Padarn (C.B.S., 190-1) we read, "At 
that time all magnify the Lord in his servant, Padarn, and all blessed 
him and said, ' May there always be to thee a sign of peace, whereby thy 
name may shine on earth in life and death,' which is fulfilled in the 
gift, Cyrwen, for such usefulness pertains to that bachall, that if two be 
in disagreement, they are pacified by their swearing together on it." 
This bachall is referred to by name in the codex C.C.C.C., 199 f. 
.11 a., by leuan ab Sulien, Rhygyvarch's brother. From it also is 
named the church of Llan Gorwen, a daughter of Llanbadarn Vawr, 
near Aberystwyth. Gerald, in his Itinerary, I. I, speaks of the once 
famous bachall of St. Cirig at St. Harmons, in Radnorshire. It " was 
prolonged a little on either side in its upper part in the form of a cross, 
and covered on all sides with gold and silver." The most famous 
bachall was that called Bachall Isa, believed to have been given to 
Patrick by Jesus himself. Bachalls were characteristic marks of 
Christian missionaries ( V.S.H., I. clxxiv-vi.). 

a most clearfountain. The number of holy wells existing in Wales to 
this day shows how widely diffused was the cult of fountains. It is 
said that in Ireland there cannot be less than 3,000. It would not be 


surprising if it was found that in Wales, too, the number ran into four 
figures. The primitive worship of wells, and well deities, was over- 
thrown by the Church by the simple process of Christianizing them. 
Sometimes this was done by building a church over or near the well, as 
at Porthclais. But the commonest way was by ascribing the origin of 
the well to the miraculous intervention of a saint. He would start one 
by striking the ground with his bachall as here. Or the well would be 
produced by the saint's blood, as at Merthyr Dunod (17), or by his 
prayers, as in the last section, or in other ways. Holy wells had various 
wonder-working qualities, especially healing properties ( V.S.H., I. 

35- prior. "On this officer, who appears under various names, 
even more than on the abbot, depended the daily lives of the monks. 
He seems to have assigned them their various tasks, and to have exercised 
his authority with no little harshness. Indeed the tyrannical ceconomtts 
is a standing type " ( V.S.H., I. cxvii.-cxviii.) in the Lives of Welsh and 
Irish saints. He is called prior as in the Life of St. Cadog (C.B.S., 68, 
88) ; prepositus, as here ; economus, as in the Life of St. Cadog (/<5., 38), 
in the Life of St. David, 38, and in the Life of St. Padarn (#., 190), 
where, however, he seems to be distinguished from the prepositus. 

at a distance. Gerald (III. 391) says the wood was in valle de Saleu- 
uach, in the Solva valley. The river Solva and the river Alun are the 
principal streams, which flow through the plain of Dewsland. "The 
former, which drains the more inland portions of the peninsula, works 
its way through a picturesque little valley, to a creek in St. Bride's 
Bay about three miles west from Newgale, into which it falls beside the 
little town to which it has given its name" (J.F., 4, 5). Solva in 
Welsh is Solvach. The little town is over three miles to the east of the 
Cathedral. It is a chapelry (St. Aeddan) under Whitchurch, in Welsh 
Tregrwes (St. David). 

As to the general treeless character of Dewsland, Jones and Freeman 
(5) write, " The whole of this district, from the dip of the country 
towards the west, and the want of hills to shelter it, is necessarily 
exposed to the extreme violence of the sea winds. These sweep over 
it at times with irresistible strength, and at all times the atmosphere is 
such as might be expected from its peninsular situation. Accordingly 
the absence of trees is all but universal ; the few which exist, from 
their solitary position, their withered and blasted aspect, and their 
palpable abhorrence of the sea, serving only to give the country a wilder 
and more desolate appearance. Plantations have been formed in the 
more sheltered valleys, in that of the Solva with some degree of success, 
but in that of the Alan with very little." 

into the sea. C.C.C.C., 161, condenses. Gerald (III., 391) differs, as 
follows : " And so, when he was returning with a full load along the 
steep sides of a hill, the oxen by chance were thrown over the cliff with 
waggon and full load. The holy man with uplifted hand brought back 
the vehicle, by the sign of the cross, in safety, the oxen, by a wondrous 
miracle, being unhurt." See, too, the Life of St. Aeddan, 12, 14 
(C.B.S., 235-7). In Llan Hwel parish, not far from the river Solva, 
is a place called Cerbyd> which means "vehicle" ; also Cerbyd Moor. 

NOTES, 35-39 103 

These are close to Vagwr Eilw (see note to 7). Cerbydis a loan- 
word from Irish. 

36. Ferns, in Scarawalsh barony, Co. Wexford. It became the 
burial-place of the kings of Leinster. Gerald (III., 391), apud Fernas, 
at Ferns, "where he vowed to serve God, having gathered brethren 
together, in accordance with the form and rule, which he had learnt at 
Menevia from the pious father (David)." 

37. Scutinus, i. e. St. Scuithin of SlieveMargy, Queen's County, to 
the west of the town of Carlow. He was also known as Scolanus. 
C.C.C.C., 161, reads Scutkinus, whom Gerald (III. 392) identifies 
with Swithunus (see note to 38); the Welsh Life (in), Sc^lthyn. 
Phillimore makes the very interesting suggestion, that the names 
Scolton in Spittal, and Scollock in Ambleston, may embody the name 
Scolan, and asks whether Scotsborough, near Tenby, may not derive 
from Scutint All these places are in Pembrokeshire. The words 
" thy fellow-disciple " here, and " his former disciple " in 38, indicate 
that St. Scuithin, like St. Aeddan, had been trained at St. Davids. 

monster; Gerald (III., 392), " marine monster "; the Welsh Life 
(in), anghenuilor mor, a monster from the sea. " Once [St. Scuithin] 
met St. Barre (of Cork), he walking on the sea, and Barre in a vessel. 
' What is the cause of thy walking on the sea ? ' says Barre. ' It is 
not sea at all, but a plain full of clover-blossom,' says Scothfn. And 
his hand touches a flower, and he throws it to Barre in the ship, and 
said, ' What is the cause of a vessel swimming on the plain ? ' At that 
word Barre stretches his hand into the sea, takes a salmon there- 
out, and flings it to Scothin. So that from that flower (scotk) he is 
named Scothfn 3 ' (Stokes' Martyrology of Census, 41 ; cf. V.S.ff.y I. 
xxxi. ; L.B.S., iii. 24). 

Even more than for ocean exploits, St. Scuithin is noteworthy for 
his gift of continency, in which he outstripped St. Brendan, as the 
latter had reason to confess (L.JB.S., i. 259). 

38. met him. The Welsh Life (in) adds, " in the place which is 
called Bed Yscolan," i. e. Yscolan's grave. The spot would appear to 
have been in the Valley, for the refectory was one of the common 
buildings within the monastic enclosure. 

cellarer and prior. The latter was second only to the abbot, being 
frequently appointed with the right of succeeding to the abbacy. The 
cellarer, or cook, was another important officer, " whose duty was to 
provide for the bodily wants of the brethren, the guests, and the poor " 
( V.S.H., I. cxviii.). 

Scutinus, otherwise called Scolanus. Gerald (III., 392) would seem 
to have heard (ut ferkibent, as they say) that Scutinus or Scitthintts, 
which last was probably the form of the name before him, was none 
other than St. Swithun, Bishop of Winchester ! St. Swithun died in 
86 1 according to MS. F. of the Saxon Chronicle. 

39. Barre. This is St. Bairre, bishop, abbot, and founder of Cork. 
By descent he was a Connaught man, but his activity seems to be 
almost entirely limited to Munster. His name appears under many 
forms, such as Barra, Barri, Barro, Barnes, Barrinus, Findbarr^ 
Finbarrus (V.S.H., ii. 347). Gerald (III., 394) gives it as Batracits, 


His full name is Findbarr, or Barrfind, meaning ' ' white crest " ( V. S.H. , 
I. xxxi.) ; in Welsh these would be Gwynvar and Berwyn respectively. 
St. Bairre's name possibly survives at St. Davids in Tir Barr, i. e. 
"Barr's land," the name of a tenement on the southern edge, of the 
Burrows (J.F., 383). The following is translated from his Latin Life 
in the Bodleian MS., 485 (c. 1200-1250) as printed in V.S.H., i. 69, 
n. 8. Plummer thinks it has been inserted into the Life from a 
different source. " At another time, after he had visited the threshold 
of the Apostles, he turned aside on his homeward journey to St. David 
that he might inherit his blessing. When Bairre had remained for a 
time with that holy man, David, he began to fear lest danger might be 
threatening his disciples on account of his absence. He asked the holy 
bishop, David, for the horse whereon he was wont to ride, that he 
might complete his journey the sooner. This being granted him 
together with the blessing he had desired, he mounted the horse, and, 
when so mounted, entered the sea with confidence, and arrived in 
Ireland. He kept the said horse with him for the service of the 
brethren. But in memory of the miracle, his disciples made a brazen 
horse, which remains to this day in Cork." For the "brazen horse " 
see next section and note. 

40. Brendan, the celebrated navigator, and abbot of Clonfert in the 
barony of Longford, Co. Galway. Clonfert stands for Cluain Ferta 
(Brenain), the mead of the miracles (of Brendan). 

painted image. Gerald (III., 395) : " a horse of molten metal, small 
and portable, with a man sitting upon it, excellently adorned with gold 
and silver. To this day, at Corcagia, Cork, in the Church of St. 
Barrocus, it is wont to be held with exceeding great reverence by the 
neighbouring people, renowned for signs and miracles." 

41. Modomnoc, the well-known Irish saint of Tibragny (V.S.ff., 
ii. 365) on the Suire, in Kilkenny county. Sir John Rhys finds the 
name as Madomnu on a stone at Llanllyr, Cardiganshire ( Y C. , xviii. 
54-5). The Irish name Domnoc is to be equated with Welsh Dyvnog 
and with the Dumnacus of Caesar's De Bella Gallico, viii. 26 (L.B.S., 
" 397)- Gerald (III., 395) calls him Mandabnaucus. Mr. Phillimore 
points out to me that "here Gerald has given the Old -Welsh, whereas 
Rhygyvarch gives the Irish form of the first possessive pronoun, 
regularly prefixed by way of endearment to the names of Irish saints. 
The form myn, my, is also found in the pet name of St. Kentigern, 
' Munghu, quod Latine dicitur carissimus amiats,' which in Latin is 
my -very dear friend (Forbes' Vita Sanctorum Scotiae, p. 169), now 
corrupted into Mungo. This in modern Welsh would be Fy ngku (for 
fyn nghu) ; the n of the Old- Welsh myn, spelt by Gerald man, is 
preserved in the South Welsh colloquial 'yn, my." 

42. almost a third part or foitrth of Ireland. Here we have a 
claim for Dewi's supremacy over a portion of Ireland, certainly over 
Laigin or southern Leinster, the chief saint of which was St. Aeddan, 
Dewi's disciple, at Ferns. Note that the Church of Naas, one of the 
chief abodes of the kings of Leinster, is dedicated to St. David ; near 
it are the remains of an ancient structure called "the Castle of St. 
David," now converted into a rectory (L.B.S., ii. 305). Other Irish 

NOTES, 42 105 


disciples of Dewi, St. Scuithin and St. Modomnoc, mentioned by 
Rhygyvarch, are Leinster saints. Ireland "was regarded as consisting 
of five provinces or 'fifths.' Connaught, Mumen, and * Ultonia 5 corre- 
sponded, with some minor differences, to Connaught, Munster, and 
Ulster of the modern map ; while Leinster represents the two remain- 
ing fifths, Laigin in the south and Meath in the north" (Bury, 70). 
Laigin, or the old kingdom of Leinster, was south of the Liffey 
(ib., 55, n. i). In this section, therefore, all Leinster is not claimed 
for Dewi, but somewhat more than Laigin, which was only a " fifth " 
of the island. What is claimed is " not a third," roughly a fourth so 
I understand the words. 

Whatever the passage exactly means, it reflects Menevian ambitions 
across Ireland, as we have detected similar Menevian ambitions across 
Mercia ( 13). Curious as it may seem nowadays, there was a moment 
when St. Davids pictured itself as ecclesiastically supreme from the 
Wash to the Shannon. And we cannot doubt that in this Life 
of St. David, history has been bent, more or less unconsciously, to 
serve this notion. If St. David was the chief saint right across Britain 
and Ireland from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, he was 
certainly the greatest saint in the British Isles ; and that this was 
actually contemplated at St. Davids seems evident from 15, where we 
are told that the smoke of Dewi's first fire in Vallis Rosina filled the 
whole of Britain, and Ireland as well ; and from 61 where an angel 
is made to announce the approaching end of Dewi " throughout the 
whole of Britain and Ireland," etc. 

is subject to David the Waterman, i.e. seruit Da^t^d Aqiiilento (see 
note to 2, "of the Aquatic Life"). Lloyd (155) says that aquilento 
here means "marsh" and refers to Ferns, the seat of St. Aeddan's 
chief monastery in Ireland, called Gtiernin in 36. The passage 
would then translate, "But almost a third part, or fourth, of Ireland 
is subject to David at Ferns, where Maeddog was." Phillimore (O's P., 
I. 206, n. 4) does not treat the passage so, nor would Sir John Rhys, 
when I asked him in 1913, listen to it. I erred against Lloyd in say- 
ing that gwern "swamp" was modern (Y C., xxiv. 57) ; Gwynvardd 
(Y ., 83, col. i.)has: 

A el ym medrawd my invent Dewi 
Nyd ayn vffern, bengvrern boeni. 
Who enters a grave in Dewi's churchyard 
Enters not hell, that swamp of torment. 

Maeddog. Lawlor {Psalter and Martyrology of Ricemarch, xvii. . 2) 
points out that the story of Maeddog and his bell "is inserted between 
two paragraphs about Modomnoc, Aidan having been the subject of 
earlier sections, in which he is not called Maedoc." From this he 
supposes that Rhygyvarch confused Maidoc with Modomnoc. This is 
possible, but it was clearly only temporary confusion. Aeddan's name, 
written Moedoc (V.S.H., ii. 346), may have misled him, but he 
straightway corrects himself, saying that Maidoc "from infancy is 

bell. Gerald (VI. 203) says of the Welsh, "I notice that they 


show devout reverence to churches and ecclesiastics, also to the relics 
of saints, to bachalls, portable bells, books of the gospel, and to the 
cross, paying far greater deference to all these than other nations." 
Several examples of bells survive (Newell's Hist, of the Welsh Church, 


" Cruedin." I am indebted to the late Kuno Meyer for the 
following : " As to crue din it should read cruedin. It is the Irish 
cruaidtn, literally 'the little hard (or harsh) one.' Cruedin is a good 
phonetic rendering of the Irish word (d Welsh dd). Cruadin 
actually occurs in Irish, as the name of Cuchulinn's sword (see Mesce 
Ulad, ed. Hennessy, p. 44)." 

43. the whole multitude of bees, i.e. all the bees in the monastery. 
Gerald (III., 396) says, "all the swarms of bees, which were at 
Menevia, or in the neighbourhood of the same." This is not what 
Rhygyvarch means, for lower down St. David is made to say, "Our 
ciuitas will be for ever deserted by you " j and Rhygyvarch states as a 
matter of experience, that bees brought into the ciuitas did not thrive. 
By ciuitas he means, not the city or parish of St. Davids (as Gerald 
would seem to have supposed), but the monastery only (V.S.H., ii. 
382, s "ciuitas"}. Bury (St. Patrick, 378) conjectures that in Ireland 
the name civitas was originally applied only to " those religious settle- 
ments which were seats of bishops." "In Gaul, in Italy, in Roman 
Britain, the bishop's seat was in a true civitas ; and we can understand 
that in a cityless land, civitas might have been used in the special 
ecclesiastical sense of the settlement in which the bishop lived." This 
same argument would apply to Wales, for Wales (though in Roman 
Britain) was, like Ireland, more "a cityless land" than not. 

attended on the bees' quarters. " Modomnoc settled at Lan 
Beachaire, 'the Church of the Bee-Keeper,' now Bremore, near 
Balbuggan, in the county of Dublin. There are ruins of an early 
church there in a cemetery surrounded by a hawthorn fence" (L.B.S., 
" 354)- I* 1 tne Martyrology ofOengus, ed. Stokes, p. 75, at February 
1 3th we read, "My-Domnoc, i.e. the festival of Modomnoc's decease, 
i.e. in Tipra Fachtnai : from Tipra Fachtnai in the west of Ossory 
the race of Ireland?* bees." And again (113), "Ffnan Camm brought 
wheat into Ireland, i.e. the full of his shoe he brought. Declan 
brought the rye, i,e. the full of his shoe. Modomnoc brought bees, 
i.e, the full of his bell : and in one ship they were brought." Gerald 
(V. 29) quotes a third century writer, Solinus, as saying there were no 
bees in Ireland, and that according to tradition they were first intro- 
duced by Dominictis Ossiriensis, i.e. our Modomnoc. A note in some 
of the Welsh law-books states, " The stock of bees is from Paradise, 
and for the sin of man they came from there. And God conferred 
His grace on them, and therefore it is impossible to sing mass without 
the wax" (W.M.L., 81). 

Never shall your offspring grow ^lp in it. This curious story of the 
absence of bees in the monastery at Vallis Rosina one can hardly 
dissociate from the Waterman's hostility to the use of intoxicating 
beverages by his monks. Not that the bees would fail to thrive there 
more than elsewhere in St. Davids and Dyved, but that Dewi the 

NOTES, 43, 44, 47~49 *>7 

Waterman would not suffer them to be reared on account of the mead, 
which was made of bees' honey this is a probable explanation. The 
Welsh word meddw, drunk, is from medd^ mead. 

44. whose life and miracles are contained in his history. These 
words would seem to show that the Life of St. Padarn (C.jB.S., 188 
197) was compiled before Rhygyvarch wrote the Life of St. David. 
As no mention is made of the Life of St. Teilo (B.LI., 97 ff.), we may 
surmise that this was written contemporaneously or after. 

47. the power of the Jews. This strange story of Dewi's ministry 
among the Jews cannot but remind one of the hitherto unexplained 
annal placed opposite Annus CLVII in the old Latin Welsh Chronicle 
(Y C., ix. 156), namely, Dauid episcopus moni itideomm. 

48. four gifts. According to the Life of St. Teilo (B. LI., 106), 
Dewi had one gift, an Altar; Padarn, two gifts, a Bachall and a 
Choral Cope; and Teilo, one gift, a Bell. According to the Life 
of St. Padarn (C.B.S., 193), Padarn had two gifts, a Bachall and 
a Tunic. Observe that here Dewi is given an Altar ; and a Bell (like 
Teilo) ; and a Bachall and Tunic (like Padarn). Doubtless Dewi's 
Bell is that called Bangu, "the dear, loud one," which in Gerald's 
time was kept at Glascwm. He tells us (VI. 18), "In Elvael at the 
church of Glascwm is a portable Bell of very great virtue, which they 
call by its proper name 'Bangu,' which also is said to have been St. 
David's. A certain woman, having secretly carried off this Bell, 
placed it on her husband, who was kept in chains in the castle of 
Khaeadr Gwy by Gwarthrynion, which Rhys ab Gruftudd \d. 1197] 
had built in our days, that she might thereby free him. But since the 
keepers of the castle would not only not release the man on this 
account, but even took the Bell by force and kept it, that same night 
the whole town by divine vengeance was consumed in its own fire, 
except the one wall where the Bell was hanging." 

49. the Pelagian heresy. Pelagius, a Briton, taught that a man 
could be saved by his own efforts without the grace of God. This 
plausible doctrine finds at all times wide acceptance, but it is rightly 
condemned by the Church, for it makes a man not humble and 
charitable, but proud and scornful. It breeds, not saints, but prigs 
and snobs of all sorts. That Pelagianism burst out afresh in Britain 
after the two successful visits of St. Germanus in 429 and in c. 447 
respectively, is not impossible. Nevertheless, had there been such 
an .outburst followed by "a universal synod of all the bishops of 
Britannia" to refute it, doubtless other reference would have been 
found to so notable an event than this late solitary one in the Life of St. 
David. That the Synod had to do with Pelagianism does not receive 
the hearty assent of modern scholars. Bright (Early Eng. Ck. Hist. t 
35) flatly denies it; Lloyd (157) is not enthusiastic, whilst Williams 
(388) maintains that " of Pelagianism proper there could be no question 
at this time," that the controversy at Brevi was "purely Gallic in 
origin, and connected with the so-called semi-Pelagianism, in which 
Faustus, successively Abbot of Lerins and Bishop of Riez, a man too 
of British origin, was the protagonist. Of this controversy there might 
be some lingering echoes at that time in Britain." Bevan (St. David's, 


1888, p. 19) writes, "The true character of the proceedings at these 
synods has been recently revealed by the discovery in France of the 
acts of two synods, named respectively Sinodus Aquilonalis Britannia 
and Altera Sinodus Luci Victoria, which may, from the coincidence of 
the word Victories occurring in the title of the second, be with great 
probability identified with the two synods of St. David's day. The 
object was, not the demolition of Pelagianism, as [Rhygyvarch] states 
in his biography of St. David, but the discipline of the clergy and 

a universal synod. According to the Life of St. Cadog (C.B.S., 
39-40) the Synod of Brevi was summoned by;.St. David at the direction 
of an angel. No mention is made of Pelagianism. In the Life of 
St. Cynnydd (N.L.A., ii. 108) "a general synod" was announced by 
St. David (see Selections). 

one hundred and eighteen bishops. Rhygyvarch could hardly have 
invented this number ; he probably found it in the old -writings before 
him. It may be stated for what it is worth that the 1 1 8th year from 
the Conversion of Constantine the Great is A.D. 429, when Germanus 
and Lupus visited Britain to confute Pelagianism. 

Brevi, the name of a small stream in Cardiganshire, some five miles 
in length, which flows directly westwards into the river Teivi. It may 
be that this locality was chosen for the synod because it was the 
meeting-place of old Roman military roads, one from the north and 
two from the south. Here, near the right bank of the Teivi, at the 
farm now called Llanio isav, "lower Llanio," was a Roman fort. 
Some inscribed stones have been found, which indicate that Roman 
soldiers were active on the spot c. A.D. loo. The Roman name of 
the site is unknown, though sometimes supposed to be Luentinum, 
which Ptolemy places N.E. of Maridunum, or Carmarthen, in the 
land of the Demetse. The northern road from Llanio passed by 
Pennal Church in Merionethshire, where too the Romans had a fort, 
and Tomen y Mur, to Caer Rhun on the river Conway, whereabouts it 
joined the Roman road across North Wales from Carnarvon to Chester. 
Of the two southern roads, which met at Llanio, one is supposed 
to have descended the Teivi valley past Lampeter and Llan y Byddair 
to the Roman site of Carmarthen ; the other crossed the Teivi below 
Llanio, then over the Brevi, as far as Llanvair Clydogau, whence 
it struck south-eastwards over the mountains to Dolau Cothi and 
Llandovery, where perhaps was Luentinum, in the direction of the 
great fortress at Caerleon-on-Usk (Trs. C.S., 1908-9, pp. 106-115). 
Doubtless, roads, military and otherwise, branched into these which 
met at Llanio, from all parts of Wales. The northerly position of 
Llanio, relative to most of South Wales, certainly seems to indicate 
that the invitation to the assembly had been extended to North Wales 
(see note to Daniel, 50). In the Welsh Life (113) consciousness of 
this northerly position of Llanddewi Vrevi is revealed in the expression 
sef ' yw honno Mynyw yn y deheu, namely, Mynyw in the south. 

The name Brevi has for ages been confused, by such as would 
explai'n it, with brevtt, "the act of lowing, bellowing, or bleating." 
This, doubtless, is the seed of the legend of Dewi's piercing voice 

NOTES, 49, 50 109 

at the synod. One might ask whether it was at any time identified 
with the scene of the Alleluya victory in 429 ? 

Paulinus. That the Synod of Brevi was called to refute the heresy 
of Pelagius is probably a mere " reverberation," as Bishop Basil Jones 
termed it, of the proceedings of St. Germanus in 429 and in c. 447 
(Bright's Chapters in Early Eng. Ch. Hist., 35 and n. 2). It is an 
echo of an event, not in the career of David, but in that of Paulinus, 
whose tombstone (if it be his, see 10) tells us that he was servatur 
fidtzi, guardian of the Faith. I would suggest that Paulinus did 
actually stand up in a gathering of British orthodox Churchmen, and 
propose that one of greater influence than themselves should be called 
in to withstand the Pelagian poison, one whom he knew of old as 
a faithful exponent of orthodoxy, because he himself had been a 
disciple of his, to wit, St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre. Germanus 
had come twice, and on each occasion after an embassy from Britain 
had been sent to Gaul. In one of the assemblies, which sent these 
embassies, Paulinus was possibly a principal mover. We learn from the 
D& excidio Britannia, 20 (C.M., 36), that in c. 447, when Germanus 
was in Britain for the second time, the Britons drew up a letter to 
send to Aetius, the chief minister of the empire under Valentinian III., 
begging the Imperial government for armed assistance against the 
Picts and the Scots. They address it "to Aetius, thrice consul," i.e. 
446. We learn also from Constantius, followed by Bede (ff.E., i. 21) 
that, when Germanus left Britain the second time, he went to Ravenna 
to plead the cause of the Armoricans. Who then more likely to have 
carried the British appeal than he? And as Germanus worked for 
the peace of his Armorica, so Paulinus might have taken this excellent 
opportunity to work for the peace of his "Britannia," for, as the 
epitaph says, he was patrieque semper amaior, at all times a lover 
of his country. 

50. Daniel, an eminent founder of monasteries, especially of the 
two Bangors of North Wales, the Bangor of Carnarvonshire, after- 
wards and now the episcopal see of the diocese of that name, of which 
he is regarded as the first bishop, and the Bangor on the Dee, 
Flintshire, terribly famous at one time throughout the Church in these 
islands for the slaughter of 1200 of its monks at the bloody Battle 
of Chester in A.D. 617 (see Bede's bitter apology in H.E., ii. 2 ; and 
for the date Arch. Camb., 1918, p. 86). Doubtless it is to these 
Bangors that our earliest tenth-century mention of Daniel (or Deinioel, 
as he is called in Welsh) refers, viz. Dispositio Danielis Bancorum, 
" the Burial of Daniel of the Bangors " ( Y C., ix. 155-6). According 
to B. y S., St. Daniel of the Bangors was cousin to St. Asaph, after 
whom the second North Welsh episcopal see is named. As Daniel 
founded Bangor, so Asaph founded St. Asaph (or, as it is called in 
Welsh from the stream on which it stands, Llan Elwy). But since c. 
1180, when Joscelyn of Furness wrote his Life of St. Kentigern for 
the then Bishop of Glasgow, and made his hero to have been the 
founder of St. Asaph or Llan Elwy, it has been generally accepted 
without further proof, that so it was. But the following pedigree, 
taken from the earliest and best lists, being the official ones of the 


court of Howel Dda (d. 950) and of his son, Owen ( Y C., ix. 173-9), 
and from the saintly affiliations of B. y S., disproves such a notion. 
It is indeed probable that St. Kentigern fled from the north to St. 
Asaph and other Welsh houses, and he may even for a while have 
acted as Abbot of St. Asaph, seeing he was of the founder's kin, 
but that TOR founded St. Asaph is not probable. 

Coyl hen 

Ceneu Garbaniaun 

II I .1 
Gurgust Masguic Pappo post priten Dumngual 

i I I I 

Merchiaun Laenauc Dunawt Samuil Cincar 

ill I I 

Cinmarc Guallauc ST. DANIEL ST. ASAPH Morcant bulc 

I I 

Urien Coledauc 

Owain Morcant 


In H.B., 62 (C.M., 206), Urien, the grandfather of Kentigern, 
Guallauc and Morcant (all these names appear in the above pedigree), 
and Rhydderch Hen, are said to have fought against the Northum- 
brian king Ilussa, son of Ida. Urien is also said to have fought against 
"Deoric " or " Deodric," another son of Ida, at which time "sometimes 
the enemy and now the citizens were being overcome." Urien was 
ultimately murdered at the instance of Morcant (doubtless the wicked 
" Morken " of the Life of St. Kentigern, cc. 21, 22), whose descendants 
persecuted the saint so that he had to fly. This is probably the occasion 
he came to Wales. Later, however, the above Rhydderch Hen, king 
of Alclyde (a descendant of that Coroticus, against whose abominable 
doings St. Patrick had written), came into power. Being a practising 
Churchman, he invited St. Kentigern back to Strath Clyde. All this 
fixes St. Kentigern's activities about and after A.D. 600, whereas St. 
Daniel and St. Asaph would have been flourishing some two generations 

Dubricim, grandson of Peibio, king of Erging (see notes to 13), 
a fifth-century bishop, who was a strong supporter of monachism 
and who died in the early sixth century. His period is partly deter- 
mined by the fact that he consecrated Samson, afterwards Bishop of 
Dol in Brittany, who is known to have been a contemporary of 
Childebert, king of Paris, from 511 to 558, and to have been present 
at a council held in Paris c. 557, where he signs as " Samson peccator 
episcopus." Dubricius' obit at 612 in .the old Latin Welsh Chronicle 

NOTES, 50-52, 54 in 

( Y C., ix. 156) is therefore hopelessly inaccurate. As his early legend 
connects him with Erging, and as his principal foundations are there, 
this district, doubtless, was the headquarters of his activities (Lloyd, 


fishes with bread and water. See 2, 4, 24, with notes. 

51. Magnus. Lewis (Glossary of Mea. Welsh Law, 1913, p. 212) 
suggests that Latin magnus may have yielded Welsh maen. If this is 
so, then doubtless the Carmarthenshire Llandyvaen (locally pronounced 
Llandyvan), under Llandeilo Vawr, means the llan of Tyvaen, /. e. the 
monastery of " thy Magnus," a saint to be identified with the Magnus 
mentioned here. In Gwynvardd's poem ( Y G., 83, col. i.) he is called 

A Dewi ae goruc, gwr bieifyt, 

Magna vab yn vyw ae varw deudyt. 

And it was Dewi who did it, the man will be his, 

Making the boy Magna alive, who had been dead two days. 

52. a church, i.e. Llanddewi Vrevi, Cardiganshire, "David- 
Church of the Brevi " on the S. bank of the stream, some i miles to 
the S.E. of the Roman site at Llanio Isav, "situated on a gentle 
eminence, backed by high mountains." 

54. This and the following section demand close attention. The 
Synod of Brevi passed certain decrees, which resulted in a general 
quickening and steadying of the religious spirit. These decrees, 
written in Dewi's own hand, were only partly to be found at St. 
Davids. I understand Rhygyvarch to mean that they had been largely 
lost in the many hostile attacks, to which St. Davids had been exposed 
from Scandinavian pirates, because they had gone out of use and were 
well-nigh forgotten, having been superseded by the decrees of the 
Synod of Victory. This last synod, held some time after that of Brevi, 
revised the decrees of the latter and added to them. These also were 
written in Dewi's own hand. From these two synods all the .churches 
of Wales received their rule. This passage shows Rhygyvarch's con- 
sciousness that distinctive peculiarities in ecclesiastical life and order 
existed within the ancient and original Church in Wales (Williams, 390). 

decrees. "The Church, for purposes of discipline, had developed 
various modes of correction in the case of lapses into sin, as well as of 
reconciliation by absolution. As we approach the sixth century, we 
find a long development of very varying procedures along independent 
lines, and ending in the very reverse of agreement throughout the 
Churches of different countries. In one point, however, there seems 
to have been universal agreement, viz. that acts of qontrition and 
confession, together with the reconciliation which followed, were 
purely ecclesiastical. Whilst, for the most part, such acts of penance 
were, in the West, not public but private, they certainly were subject 
to the judgment of the bishop ; he, or the presbyter representing him, 
was always the ministrant. Yet in Britain and Ireland there had 
grown up a different system ; the disciplinary measures were conducted 
from the cloister. Different sins began to be catalogued after the 
manner of penal enactments, with the corresponding penance to be 


undergone before reconciliation. In the opening words of the Peni- 
tential of Columbanus ' there must be a mensura paenilentice ' [a 
measure of penance] calculated according to the magnitude of the sins 
committed. What this missionary did not quite find in Gaul, accord- 
ing to the words of his biographer Jonas, viz. pcenitentia medicamenta 
et mortificaiionis amor [medicines of penance and love of mortification] , 
he brought to that country from his Irish home. People from all parts 
soon flocked to his monastery at Luxeuil to partake of the benefit of 
the 'medicine of penance' (Vita Col., 2). Books containing such 
rules, by which sins and the appointed penances were thus arranged in 
order, were called PENITENTIALS (Libri Panittntiales). They seem 
to have had their origin in Britain and Ireland, but, after the seventh 
century, they are found both in the English Church and in Churches 
far and wide over the Continent " (Williams' Gildas, 272). Penitentials 
survive ascribed to Gildas, Finnian of Clonard, Columbanus of Luxeuil, 
and Cummean, whilst in the English Church we have penitentials attri- 
buted to Archbishop Theodore, Bede, and Archbishop Egbert of York. 
There survive also some excerpts from a "Book of David," which 
are penitential canons of the same character as those just mentioned. 
The decrees of the Synods of " Northern Britannia " and the " Wood 
of Victory " are also of the same nature. They will all be found 
printed by Dr. Williams in his Gildas, 286-288. 

55. two synods. The express statement of Rhygyvarch that from 
certain two synods "all the churches of our country take their 
standard and rule " cannot lightly be set aside. That they were (i) a 
synod of Brevi and (2) a synod "of Victory" must be accepted till the 
contrary is proved. And the fact that there exist several lists of 
Penitential Canons, emanating from the Church in Britain and Ireland, 
of which one is called " the Synod of Northern Britannia," and a 
second "the Synod of the Wood of Victory," followed by "Some 
Excerpts from the Book of David," serves to stiffen our confidence 
(Williams' Gildas, 286-288). It can hardly be doubted that RhygK 
varch's Synod " of Victory" is identical with "the Synod of the Wood \. 
of Victory " ; and if one could be sure that a note of Leland's, viz. \ 
' ' In Synodo breui," was extracted from the same ninth-century source 
as other adjoining notes of his, carrying the name of Sadyrnvyw, 
Bishop of St. Davids, who died in A.D. 831, the occurrence of a Synod 
of Brevi would be doubly proved (O's P., ii. 428). One would like 
to be able to identify the above-mentioned Synod of "Northern 
Britannia" with that of Brevi. "Northern Britannia" might mean 
North Britain, and also, equally as well, North Wales. Brevi is 
nowadays reckoned to be in South Wales, but that a synod should 
have assembled there in the early sixth century, by the old military 
road of the Romans, where it would be convenient for delegates to 
arrive from the north, and also that St. Daniel of the Bangors is said to 
have been present, helps to support the idea that the synod had what 
might be called a " northern " character. Llanddewi Vrevi is certainly 
north relative to most of South Wales. 

Gerald's paraphrase and additions (III. 401-2) are interesting and 
valuable. "The decrees of these two synods, which Bishop David 

NOTES, 55, 57 113 

had promulgated by word of mouth, he also committed to writing with his 
own sacred hand, and commended to be kept for his own church and 
several others thoughout Wales [Rhygyvarch says ' all the churches of 
our country ']. But like veiy many other excellent treasures of his 
noble library, they have disappeared owing to age and negligence, and 
also the frequent attacks of pirates, who, arriving in summer-time in 
ships of war from the Orkney islands, had been wont to waste the 
maritime provinces of Wales." In the old Latin Welsh Chronicle 
a destruction of Mynyw is given as having occurred in 810 (it had been 
burnt before in 645), and again in 906 (Y C., ix. 158, 163, 167). In 
the continuations of the Chronicle we read that Mynyw was destroyed 
very many times subsequently, as in 999, when Bishop Morgeneu was 
slain " by the Gentiles," and in 1080, when Bishop Abraham met with 
like fate at their hands. 

57. This section in the Welsh Life (115-6) reads, " And that day 
there was given to Dewi his rights of sanctuary, and protection to every 
such person as did evil and should fly to Dewi's sanctuary. This, is 
Dewi's right of sanctuary to all who may be in the city of Rubus t 
Mynyw, in the refuge of Dewi and under his protection, if he be in need. 
There is permission to him to proceed from Towi [reading dytti y 
C.jB.S., 113, for dyfi\ as far as Teivi [between Towi and Teivi was the 
original Dyved, see note to 3]. And if he be in need to go further, 
let him proceed forward before every saint and king and person in this 
island. Dewi's right of sanctuary is, wherever there may be land 
consecrated to Dewi Sant ; and let no king 'or prince or bishop or saint 
presume to grant refuge to him before Dewi, because he received refuge 
before all, and none received before him, for him God and men placed 
chief of all the island. And then those saints with the consent of the 
kings excommunicated any who should violate Dewi Sant's right of 

right of sanctuary. In 1081 Rhys ab Tewdwr, king of the " south " of 
Wales, was forced to take refuge in Dewi's sanctuary at Vallis Rosina, 
where Gruffudd ab Cynan, king of the " north " of Wales, found him. 
They joined forces, and fought and won the important battle of Mynydd 
Carn (Jones' Hist, of G. ap Cynan, 124 ff. ; Y C., xxii. 57). Gerald, 
in his Description of Wales, i. 1 8, informs us that the churches of the 
Welsh " enjoy far greater tranquillity than elsewhere. For not only is 
protection assured for animals to pasture in churchyards, but also far 
beyond, along boundaries and ditches removed some distance away, 
which have been imposed and confirmed by bishops for the sake of 
peace. But the greater churches, to which antiquity has tendered 
greater respect, provide security as far as cattle can go forth in the 
morning and return in the evening. For which reason, too, a man who 
shall have incurred the mortal enmity of a prince will enjoy similar 
security for himself and his following, if he seeks the protection of the 
Church. The result is that many abuse this privilege, which far exceeds 
the indulgence of the canons, for these only provide safety to body and 
limbs. Owing to this impunity, those who seek sanctuary increase in 
audacity and hostility, and from these places of refuge seriously disturb 
the whole country on every side as well as the prince by their onsets." 


1 58. If St. David had really lived 147 years (which nobody now 
believes), he would have died in 609, counting from 462 (thirty years 
after Bishop Patrick's arrival in Ireland). As his death is given in the 
jold Latin Welsh Chronicle ( Y C., ix. 156) in 601, I have long thought 
that Rhygyvarch had this Chronicle (which was a Menevian one) before 
him. The entry is opposite Annus CLVIL, and reads "Dauid epis- 
copus moni iudeoruw." It is synchronized with the death of Pope 
Gregory the Great, between which and the notice of David Phillimore 
supposes that the conjunction et, and, has dropped out, so that the 
passage would have originally meant " Gregory died in Christ, [and] 
David, Bishop of m.i.," whatever the last two words may mean. The 
notice has certainly been regarded from of old as referring to the death 
of Dewi Sant. The 147 years given by Rhygyvarch to the saint seems 
to be a bungling attempt to bridge the interval between this entry and 
the saint's birth, which occurred thirty years after Patrick's arrival in 
Ireland as bishop. I have tried to explain it thus. As Pope Gregory 
died according to Bede (H.E., ii. i) in 605, the event was placed 
opposite Annus CLVIL, counting not from 445, which is the Annus I. 
of the Chronicle, but from 449, the well-known Bedan date of the 
Saxon Advent, thus, 449 plus 156 = 605. This occurs elsewhere in 
the Chronicle, as e.g. the death of Patrick (461) at Annus XIII. , and the 
Battle of Chester (617) at Annus CLXIX., which are correct if counted 
from 449. The death of David, therefore, being synchronized with 
that of Gregory, may have been treated as occurring in 605. If we 
suppose that the birth of David was also calculated from 449, it would 
have equated with Annus XIV. Inserted in a copy of this Chronicle 
(as indeed we find it in MSS. B. and C.) it would have yielded not 
449 plus 13 = 462, but 445 plus 13 = 458. Now the difference 
between 458 and 605 is 147, which is the number of years alloted to 
Dewi by Rhygyvarch. 

It is more difficult to explain why the death of St. David was placed 
at so late a date as 60 1, in which year, be it noted, March I was not 
a Tuesday. Lower down, at 612, is given the obit of St. Dubricius, 
which, as we have seen, is hopelessly wrong (see note to 50). These 
two, being contemporaries, equally famous as saints, one in S.E. 
Wales and the other in the S.W., one may surmise that their obits 
were extracted from some common source, and the calculations 

65. buried in his own monastery. In the Life of St. Caradog, 
" extracted perhaps from a life by Giraldus" (N.L.A., i. 174), it is said 
that formerly, owing to attacks of pirates from the Orkney Islands 
(cf. Gerald III., 402), St. Davids was left almost without inhabitant 
for seven years, so that a certain priest, after clearing away thorns and 
briars, " hardly reached the tomb of the confessor, St. David, on the 
seventh day." This is doubtless an exaggeration, out of which capital 
was made by Glastonbury monks on behalf of their preposterous claims. 
In 1088 Dewi's coffin was stripped of its precious metal by robbers, 
but the relics would seem to have been left intact. John of Tynemouth 
(c. 1290-1350), who visited St. Davids, says that St. David rests in his 
cathedral church (N.L.A., i. 254). William of Worcester, at the end 

NOTES, 65, 67-68 115 

of the fifteenth century, says that St. Justinan "lies in a chapel in the 
church of St. David sub ejus lumba^ under, or below, his tomb" (J.F., 
103, . m). In the Life of St. Justinan, copied and condensed by 
John of Tynemouth at St. Davids (N.L.A., ii. 93-5), although Justinan 
is said to have been buried in the church of St. Davids "in a new 
sarcophagus," nothing is said of his lying in or near St. David's own 
resting-place. But it is evident that at the end of the fifteenth century, 
the two bodies rested either one on the other, or one at the foot of the 
other ; anyhow, near one another. In 1326, when an extent of the 
lands and rents of the Bishop of St. Davids was drawn up, the shrine 
and relics of St. David were wont to be carried about both in time of 
war and peace, as to Carmarthen and to Cam Twrne in the parish of 
St. Dogwells or Nant y Dewi, where the three cantrevs of Pebydiog, 
Cemes, and Dougledde met (B.B. St. D., 36, 50, 66, So, 88, 94, 
no, 122, 124, 152, 160. 

67. Rhygyvarch. This is the correct modern equivalent of Rice- 
march-us, lor Ricemarch (three syllables with accent on the second), 
written in present-day Welsh " Rhygyfarch." All forms save these 
are to be avoided, especially the familiar bastard form " Rhyddmarch." 
"The fairly correct form Rychmarch of the older texts (transliterated 
from some such older form as Richemarch, the first h of which is merely 
orthographical) is altered into the scribe's gibberish Rythmarch, 
whence springs the ridiculous Rhyddmarch of your modern Welsh 
antiquary ; of course the Old- Welsh Ricemarck would now be written 
and pronounced Rhygyfarch" (thus Phillimore in YC., xi. 174). 

It is also a long-standing error to suppose that Rhygyvarch (1057- 
1099) was ever Bishop of St. Davids. This idea is due to a slip of the 
copyist of MS. c of the Latin Welsh Chronicle, who in the notice 
Rikewarth.f. Siilien episcopi moritur, Rhygyvarch son of Bishop Sulien 
dies, wrote episcopus for episcopt , which would mean " Rhygyvarch ab 
Sulien, bishop, dies" (Lloyd, 452, n. 208). The succession of bishops 
of St. Davids at this time was as follows : 

1072 (or io73)-8. Sulien. 

1078-80. Abraham (murdered by Norse pirates). 

1080-85. Sulien (the second time). He died Jan. I, 1091, 

aged eighty. 
1085-1115. Wilfrid, "the last of the independent line of 


1115-1147. Bernard, a Norman- Frenchman, the first alien 


68. In an older form (Y C., ix. 170, 174) this pedigree goes back 
to Beli the Great, whose wife was Anna, "whom they say was con- 
sobrina, cousin or kinswoman, to Mary the Virgin, the mother of our 
Lord Jesus Christ." This Beli the Great was the father of Aballac, 
who had a son Eudelen, whence the stock of Coyl, whose name is said 
to survive in " Kyle," Ayrshire, who also was ancestor to St. Daniel, 
St. Asaph, and St. Kentigern ; and a son Eugein, after whom comes 


Brithguein, Dubun, Oumun, and Amguerit (as here) till Doeil, who 
should be followed by Guorcein, Cein, and Tacit (Tacitus), who was 
father of Patern Pesrud (wrongly divided here into two persons), i.e. 
Paternus of the Red Tunic. Rhys thought the " Red Tunic " had 
reference to the purple of office (Celtic Britain, 3rd ed., 118). His 
grandson Cunedda is styled Gwledig, "Ruler," supposed to represent 
some "legitimate" position in the Roman Empire. He is associated 
in a sixth-century poem of Taliesin with Carlisle and a place called 
" Kaer Weir" (Evans' Book of Taliessin, 69 ; Y. C., xxviii. 209-11). 
This Cunedda with many sons, of whom Ceredig, Dewi's grandfather, 
was one, entered North Wales from Manaw Gododdin, "on the 
southern side of the Firth of Forth" (Rhys' Celtic Britain, 3rd ed., 
112), and drove the Irish out of their homes in those parts (C.M., 
205-6). We find them occupying Wales from the Dee to the Teivi 
and to the Gwaun (Y C., ix. 183 ; C.B.S., 101). 


II. Albus, i.e. Aed Finn, chief of Ui Bruin, Connacht, a district 
in N. of Co. Roscommon (V.S.H., ii. 342, 356). 

new tonsure. Plummer thinks that " the so-called Celtic tonsure 
was possibly druidic in origin." This passage, which seems to speak 
of the tonsuring of a secular chief, he does not wholly understand 
(V.S.H., Lcxxiii). 

12. prior, "equonomus," the "monasterii prepositus" of the Life 
of St. David, 35. He was second only to the abbot, and ofttimes his 

huili ar in feni, "i.e. the crook (lit. elbow) for the waggon; 
perhaps the peg or bolt, which fastened the body of the cart to the 
frame" (V.S.H., ii. 298, note). 

the shore. About 500 yards from the beach of Whitesand Bay is 
a well called Ffynnon Vaeddog, " the Well of St. Maeddog," i. e. 

13. Gladiiis : doubtless the river Cleddy (for " Cleddyv," sword). 
On the right bank of the Eastern Cleddy is Llawhaden, an ancient 
foundation of St. Aeddan; and over four miles to the S.E. is an 
ancient foundation of St. David, namely, Llanddewi Velfrey. With 
these two places the authors of L.B.S., i. 118-9 connect this incident. 

It is not. In M (V.S.H., ii. 141-163) this passage translates as 
follows: "'Father, upbraid him not, because God will upbraid him 
enough for us, and he will soon die. And no one will know his 
sepulchre.' And so it all happened to that envious prior according to 
the prophecy of St. Moedhog, the man of God." 

16. flat face. See note to Life of St. David, 7. 

19. Fothart campi Itha, i.e. Fothart of Magh Ithe, in Leinster. 
The name survives in the bar. Forth, Co. Wexford (V.S.H., ii. 328, 

33 1 )- 


20. amicus anime, the Irish anmchara. "soul-friend" (V.S.H., 
ii. 381). The Rev. Canon Dr. John Fisher equates the Irish anmchara 
with the Welsh periglor. "Practically the received opinion among 
scholars to-day is that periglor is derived from the ' Periculosa oratio, 1 
the name given to the Consecration Prayer in the Irish treatise in the 
Stowe Missal, of the early ninth century, the earliest surviving Missal 
of the Irish Church. ... In the early Scottish Communion Service 
on the margin opposite the Consecration Prayer was written in bold 
characters the word ' Peril,' and a priest who made any mistake in the 
Prayer was severely punished, fifty lashes for his first offence, and 
imprisonment on bread and water for his third offence. However, it 
seems to me that we need not go so far afield as that in search of 
a derivation. Periglor is found in numerous passages in mediaeval 
Welsh associated with penyd, penance, and periglo, to administer ex-, 
treme unction ; so that it would appear that his special office was that of 
confessor, who heard confession, and imposed penance ; but above all 
as the priest who administered extreme unction 'in periculo mortis.' 
He represented the anmchara, literally ' soul-friend,' that is, con- 
fessor, of the early Irish Church ; and to him especially no doubt was 
applied the old saying, ' Goreu meddyg meddyg enaid, 5 the best phy- 
sician is the physician of the soul. To give but one reference ; in the 
Laws of Hywel Dda the bishop is called the King's periglor, i. e., his 
confessor " ( Y Llan, March n, 1921). That Dr. Fisher is right, there 
can be no doubt ; see W.M.L., 101, where the periglawr, the priest 
privately approached, is distinguished from the offeirat, the priest 
approached publicly ; also p. 129, where the periglawr is clearly the 
woman's anmchara, soul-friend, or confessor. 

Ard Ladrand, "in Ui Cennselaig, perhaps Ardamine, bar. Ballagh- 
keen, Co. Wexford" (V.S.H., ii. 315). 


2527. Dairinis; see Trs. C.S., 1895-6, p. 65. 
Cathmael, the Irish form of Cadvael, i. e. Cadog. 
2540. Lann Gabran, apparently Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, 
otherwise Nantcarvan. Cf. Nont in the Latin Life of this saint, 5. 


Jttstinan, not Justinzan ; hence Forth Stinan on Ramsey Sound, 
and Llan Stinan, near Fishguard. 

Limeneia : Ramsey Island, called by Ptolemy in his Geography, ii. 2, 
Afjuvou Ipijjuos (O's P., i. 112). George Owen in one place says 
there were two decayed chapels on the island, one called after St. 
David and another after St. Devanok (#.). Hence the island was 


called in Welsh Ynys Tyvanog, or Dyvanog. In another place he 
says, "There are two Chapels in this Island, one at the South End, 
call'd Capel-Stinans\ the other to the North, call'd Capel- Divanog. 
Each of these Chapels has a fine Spring of pure Water running by it" 
(Survey, 59). These two Chapels must be those, whose sites are 
marked on the six-inch O. S. map, both on the eastern shore. The 
south chapel is opposite the Bitches ; the north chapel is some 660 
yards further up ; but they are not at the ends of the island, being 
rather midway. George Owen clearly took the south chapel to be 
Capel Stinan, and the other Capel Dyvanog. Fenton, however, (69), 
reversed the order, the place shown to him for the site of Dyvanog's 
Chapel being " a little hollow to the west of the house, having a little 
ripple of water passing near it." He quotes a Welsh couplet, which 
confirms the association of the two saints : 

Stinan a Devanog, Justinan and Dyvanog, 
Dati anwyl gymydog. Two dear neighbours. 

At the south extremity of Ramsey Island are two places marked Tnuyn 
Mynachdy and Ogov Mynachdy, the Nose (or Point), and the Cave, 
of the monastery, which may indicate the existence at one . time of 
a religious foundation close by. 

the Rock of the Lepers. This is commonly taken to be the isolated 
sea rock, locally called Gwaingarreg, or Waingarreg, which lies 
between Whitesand Bay and Ramsey Island, treated as " Gwahan- 
garreg" (J.F., 226). There is a Dwr Cleivion, "Lepers' Water," 
also called Rhydy Cleivion, "the Lepers' Ford," on the Whitchurch to 
St. Davids road, "where it crosses the Clegyr brook 1 '" (*#.,- 42). 
Perhaps this " clegyr " was the " rock." 

creek* Porth Stinan, where is now St. Davids' Lifeboat Station. 

church. Capel Stinan, above Porth Stinan. 

In another codex is a Collect : " God, who didst feed thy blessed 
martyr, Justinan, with heavenly food, carried by a pigeon, grant, we 
beseech thee, that by his intercessions we may be meet to come to the 
joys of eternal bliss, through," etc. This refers to some incident, 
omitted in the Life as we have it. 


Moedhog. s, col. 278, has, " Saint Aeddan, abbot of Ferna Mara, 
Great Ferns." 

David. S has " David of the Church of Muini, that he might become 
\iisamici4sanime, 'soul-friend,' Ir., anmchara, Welsh, periglor." 

Molua. s, " Lugaid mac Coche." In the Martyroiogy of Oengus, 
H.B.S., 183, "Now 'tis Molua that was soul friend to David of 
Cell Muine, and to Coemoc, and to Maedoc, and to Comgall, ut 
quidam dixit : 

Molua was soul-friend to David over the slow . . . sea, 
and to C6em6c and to Maedoc and to Comgall." 



Aberystwyth, xv, 101 

Abraham, Bishop of St. Davids, 

xv, 113, 115 
adneiiy 60 
Aeddan, St., 9, 17-18, 21, 34-8, 

52, 55, 77, 87-8, 90, ioi-2, 

105, 116, 118 

Aelyyw, St., 6, 38-9, 71-2, 77-8 
Agricola, King of Dyved, 62, 88 
Ailbe, St. See Aelvyw 
Aircol. See Agricola 
altar (at Llan Gyvelach), 8, 23, 

82, 107 ; two-headed, 8, 82 
Alun, river, n, 66, 90-2, 102 
Amator, Bishop of Auxerre, 57, 


amicus anime. See soul-friend 

Anhuniog, 84 

anmchara. See soul-friend 

" Annales Cambriae." See Latin 
Welsh Chronicle 

Annun, uncle of St. David, 84 

Anselm, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, xviii 

Anwyl, Bodran, 60, 78 

Aquatic, viii, 1-2, (4), (25), 62-3, 
71, 105, in 

Archenfield. See Erging 

Ardmore, 42 

Arglud ( = Clyde-side), 73-5 

Arthen ab Sulien, xv 

Arthur, 59, 99 

Arymes Prydein Vawr, viii-x 

Asaph, St., 109-110, 115 

Asser, Bishop of St. Davids, viii- 

Auxilius, St., 64, 88-9, 95 

Avan, St., 58, 85 

bachall, 16, 24, 53, 101-2, 106-7 

Bangor-on-the-Dee, 109 

Bangu, a bell, 82, 107 

Barre, St., 19-20, 103-4 

Bath, 8, 80-1 

Bed Yscolan, 103 

Bede, 59, 79, 109, 112, 114 

bees, 19, 21-2, 30, 32, 106 

Bell, Mr. H. Idris, 47, 52 

bell, bells, 13, 21, 24, 38, 47-8, 

73, 82, 101, 105-7 
Bernard, Bishop of St. Davids, 65, 

80, 94-5. "5 
Bevan, W. L., 107 
bishop-houses of Dyved, 89, 945 
Boducat, 9, 83 
JSoia, Boya. See Bwya 
Bollandists, xii 
Brawdy, 101 
Brendan, St., 20, 103-4 
Bretons, ix 

Brevi, 25, 40, 107-113 
Bridell, 59-61 
Brittany, viii, 48, 58, 68, 71, 74, 

79, 88-9, "0 

Brycheiniog, xvii, 58, 70, 81 
Buellt, ix, 58 

Burrows, the, 69, 72-3, 104 
Bury, Prof., 57, 64, 106 
Butler, Dom, 95 
Bwya, 9-12, 66, 88, 90-2 

Cadog, St., 39-41, 43-5, 59, 62, 
73-6, 82-3, 87, 89, 96, 102, 
108, 117 

Cadwaladr, King of Gwynedd, ix 

Cadwy ab Geraint, 75, 99-100 

Caeo, 71, 79 

Caer Gawc, 71 




Caer Lisci, 93 

Caer Vorva, 71-3 

Caer Vwya, 90-1, 93 

Cairnech, Cernach. See Caran- 


Cambuslang, 75 
Canterbury, xvi, xviii, So 
Canu y Dewi, xiv 
capan, cope, 101 
Capel Non, 71, 73, 101 
Capel Padrig (in Nevern), 64 
Capel Stinan (50-1), 101, 118 
Capel y Pistyll, 77, 91 
Caradog of Llancarvan, 46, 72 
Caradog, St., 114 
Carannog, St., 57, 64, 84, 99 
Cam Badrig, 69 
Carn Lleity, 68-9, 91 
Cam Pen Biri, 91 
Carrum, 99 

Castell Caer Vwya, 90-1 
Castell Clegyr Vwya, 90, 93 
Castell Penlan, (54), 90-1, 93 
Catalogue of the-Saints of Ireland, 

vii, 74, 100 

Cathmael, Catmael. See Cadog 
Caw, father of St. Gildas, 4, 73-5 
Cedweli, 9, 80-1, 83, 89 
Celestine, Pope, 58, 79 
cellarer, 18-19, 103 
Cenarth Mawr, 62 
Ceneu, St., 85 
Cerbyd, 102-3 
Ceredigion, xv, 1-3, 57-8, 64-5, 

80, 84 

Chester, Battle of, 109, 114 
Chormeum, 48 
Cirig, St., 101 
ciuitas (= monastery), 106 
das (12), 82, 93-5 
Clegyr, brook, 118 
Clegyr Vwya, 67, 87, 90-1, 93 
Clydeside. See Arglud 
Clydesmen, ix 
Colgan, xii 
Colman, St., 78 
Colva, 8, 80- 1 
Connaught, 77, 87, 103, 105 
Constans, monk, 97 
Constantine, St., 16, 98-100 

cope, 107 

Cornishmen, ix, 16, 98 
Cornwall, 58, 71, 74, 88, 98- 


Council of Paris (c. 557), 83, no 
cowl, 41, 101 
Criumther, 3, 70, 92 
Croyland, 8, 80-1 
Cruedin, a bell, 21, 1 06 
cucumert, 11, 92 
Cybi, St., 62, 98-100 
Cymry, ix 

Cyngar, St., 98-100 
Cynnydd, St., 41-2, 108 
Cynog, bishop, 89 
Cynwyl Gaeo, 71 
Cynyr, Non's father, 71 
Cyrwen, a bachall, 101 

Daniel ab Sulien, xv 

Daniel, St., 25, 63, 108-10, 112, 

Dark Gate, Carmarthen, 65 

de excidio Britanniac, 57, 8i,.9O, 

92, 109 
deacon, 18-19 
Declan, St., 42-3, 106 
Deheubarth, xiv, xvi, 55, (63), 

65, (69), (7i), (94), (H3) 
Deisi, Dessi, 42, 76 
Deposit, Monastery of the, I, 59- 

Devonian peninsula, 68, 71, (74- 

5), 80, 99, (100) 
Dewi, Dewidd, 57 
Dewsland. See Pebydiog 
Doctis, St., vii, 74, 100 
Dogvael, St., 85 
druid, druids, 5-6, 9, 59, 66, 76, 


Dublin, ix-x, 77, 106 
Dubricius, St., x, 25, 56, 63, 83, 

88-9, 100, no-ii, 114 
Dulane, Co. Meath, 64 
Dunod, St., n, 70, 92 
Dyved, 2-3, 62, 64-5, 70-1, 73-4, 

76, 78, 80-1, 88-9, 94-5, I0 , 

106, 113 
Dyvrwr, Dyvrwyr. See Water- 




Egyptian monachism, viii, 15, 95, 

Eiludd, St. (= Teilo), 9, 22, 24, 

41, 52-5, 62, 79, 87-90, 95, 

101, 107 

Elvael, 73, 80-2, 107 
Erging, 9, 81, 83, 100, 110-11 
Evans, Dr. J. Gwenogvryn, 53 
Evans, Mr. Henry (Ty Ddewi}, 

Evrddyl, St., 83 

father confessor. See soul-friend 
Faustus, Abbot of Lerins, 98, 107 
female slaves, 10-11, (55), 88, .91 
Fenton, Richard, of Glynamel, 

66-7, 90, 118 
Ferns, Co. Wexford, 17, 34, 52, 

.87. 103-5, 118 
Findian, Finnian, St., 40, 43-5, 


Fisher, Canon, 117 
flat face, 6, 36, 77, 116 
fountain. See well 
fratrtielis, 9, 84, 86 

Gauls, 23 

Geoffrey of Monmouth, 46, 53, 

59. 72, 89 
Geoffrey Stephen, 53, 87-90, 92, 


Geraint ab Lludd, 75, 99-100 
Gerald, xii-xiii, 65-8, 70-3, 77-8, 

80, 82, 85-94, 100-7, 112-14 
Germanus of Auxerre, 7, 24, 58, 

63-4, 79, 107-9 
Germanus of St. Harmons, ix 
gifts from heaven, 24 
Gildas, St., vii-viii, 4-5, 43, 45- 

8, 54, 62-3, 72-6, 96-7, 112 
Giraldus Cambrensis. See Gerald 
Gladius, river, 36, 116 
Glascwm, 8, 80, 82, 94, 107 
Glastonbury, 8, 80-1, 114 
Glywysing, 40, 8 1, 83 
Gower, 8, 41, 80, 83 
Gruffudd ab Cynan, 94, 113 
Grufiudd ab Llywelyn, xvi 
Guernin (= Ferns, Co. Wexford), 

17, 105 

Guistiliantts, Bishop, 9, 84-5, 


Gwent, xvi, 8, 80-2 
Gwrtheyrnion, ix, 107 
Gwynedd, xvi, 74, 94 
Gwynlle, St., 85 
Gwynvardd Brycheiniog, xiv, 82, 

89-90. 95 I0 5> 

handkerchief, 27 

Hen Llan, I, 58, 61 

Hen Vynyw, 7, 9, 73, 78-80, 83- 

7, 89 

Herwald, Bishop of Llandaff, 39 
Hismael. See Ysvael 
Historia Brittonunit ix, 75 
Hodnant, Hoddnant, 9, 68, 89 
Honoratus, St., 98 
Honorius, 49 
Howel, Laws of, (60), 61, 65, 93, 

(106), 117 

lestin, St., 98-100 

leuan ab Sullen, xv, 101 

Illtud, St., viii, 47-8, 62, 73, 89 

Ina, St., 84 

Ireland, vii, xv, 3, 9, 17, 20-2, 
29, 37-8, 43, 47, 57-8, 63-4, 
68-70, 72-4, 76-7, 94-5. 98-9 

IOI, IO4-6, III-I2, 114 

Irish, ix, 19-20, 41, 43, 57, 68, 
72, 93, 116 ; Canons, 64 ; ceme- 
teries, 87 ; code of law, 64 ; 
earth, 22 ; hagiology, 59 ; 
heathen, 58 ; hermits, 95 ; influ- 
ences, 93; language, 17, 34, 
43> 76, 78, 90, 92, 104, 106; 
man, 9, 90 ; saints, vii, 68, 74, 
87, 100, 102, 104 ; sea, 68 ; 
tribal histories, 76 

Isel, St. See Auxilius 

Jerusalem, 22-3, 52-3, 55, 88 

Jews, 23, 107 

John Cassian, St., 98 

John of Tynemouth, xiii, 41, 48, 

68, 114-15 

Jones, Prof. T. Gwyn, xiv 
Justinan, 8^,48-51,91,101, 115, 




Kaer Weir, 116 

Kaircaiaii, 71 

Kaoc, 71 

Kentigern, Life of, 109-10 

Killishea, Kil lossy, 64 

Kyle in Ayrshire, 115 

Lament of Rhygyvarch, xv-xvii 
Latin Welsh Chronicle, x, 57, 

65, 78, 89, 94, 107, 1 10, 113715 
Leinster, 34, 52, 77, 87, 103-5, 


Leominster, 8, 80, 82 
lepers, 51, 118 
Lerins, 57, 79, 98, 107 
Lewis, Prof. T., in 
Lifris, Lifricus, 39 
"Lily Gwas Dewi," 85 
Limeneia, 49, (101), 117-18 
Lisci, 12, 92-3 
llan "place" (= monastery), 74, 


Llan Adneu, 60 
Llanbadarn Vawr, Card., xiv, xvi, 


Llanbeblig, 98 
Llan Blethian, 79 
Llandaff, 39, 53, 55, 87-8 
Llanddewi Velfrey, 76, 116 
Llanddewi Vrevi, 25, 27, 65, 108, 

IH-I2 ; anchorite of, xiii 
Llanddyvrwyr, 62 
Llandeilo Vawr, 87-8, 1 1 1 
Llan Elwy (= St. Asaph), 109-10 
Llan Gadog (in Anglesey), 75 
Llan Gynnydd, 41 
Llan Gyvelach, 8, 24, 80-2, 94 
Llanio, 108, in 
Llanllieni (= Leominster), 82 
Llan Non, 60, 71, 73 
Llan Stinan, (50), 117 
Llan Veugan (nr. Bridell), 59-60 
Hog, "place" (= monastery), 97 
Lloyd, Prof. J.E., 60, 63, 94, 107, 


Llyn Henllan, I, 58, 61 
Lugaid. See Molua 
Lupus, Bishop of Troyes, 58, 79> 

lytu (= llydw), 62 

Madley (= matle, good place), 83 
Maeddog. See Aeddan. Not 

Madog, 87 
Magnus, St., 26, in 
Maitrun, St., 9. 83 
Man, Isle of, 68 
Manaw Gododdin, 116 
March, First of, I, 29-30, 114; 

Thirty-first of, xvi 
Martin, St., of Tours, 97-8 
Martyrology of Oengus, vii, 103, 

106, 118 
Mathry, 62 

Maucannus, Mawgan, I, 58-62 
Meath, 105 
" Menapia," 72 
Menevia. See Mynyw and Vallis 


Mercia, 80- 1, 105 
merthyr, 92-3 

Merthyr Dunod, 12, 91-2, 102 
Meugan, St., 58-62 
Meyer, Kuno, 106 
Modomnoc, St., 20-1, 104-6 
Moedhog. See Aeddan 
Molua, son of Coche, St., 38, 52, 


moni iudeoruw, x, 78, 107, 1 14 
Mons Bannauc, 74-5 
Morgannwg, xvi, 53 
Morgeneu, Bishop of St. Davids, 

63. 96, 113 
Morva, 72-3 
Morva Esgob, 73 
Moucan. See Maucannus 
Mungo, St., 104 
Munster, 6, 42, 52, 77, 103, 105 
Mynydd Cam, Battle of, xvi, 113 
Mynyw, vii, ix, 6, (39), (43), (45), 

(47), 48, 51, 54, 56, 65-6, 70-2, 

77-9, 84, 86, 89, 94-5, 103, 

108, 113 

Naas, 64, 104 

Nobis, Bishop of St. Davids, viii 

Nonnita, Non, St., 4-5, 46, 58, 

63, 7o-i, 73. 84-5 
Norman French in Wales, xvi, 66, 

94-5, "5 
Nynias, St., 59, 97-8 



Ossory, 52, 106 
Oudoceus, St., 56, 88-9 

Padarn, St., 22, 24, 41, 52-3, 55, 

58, 101-2, 107 
Palladius, Bishop, 58, 63, 79 
Parc-y-Capel, 68-9 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, 23-5, 53, 

Patrick, St., 1-3, 33, 57-8, 63-4, 

68-70, 72, 74, 77, 84, 92-3, 

98-9, 101, no, 114 
Paucaut, father of Lisci, 12 
Paul Aurelian, St., viii, 62, 73 
Paulinus, St., 7-8, 25, 47, (53), 

79, 88, 109 
Peblig, St., 97-8 
Pebydiog, (46), 62, 65-6, (68), 

70-2, 77-8, 102, 115 
Pedr, St., 85 
Pedrog, St., 99-100 
Peibio, 8, 81, 83, 100, no 
Pelagian heresy, 24, 79, 107-13 
Pelagius, 63, 97, 107, 109 
Pembroke Dock, 64 
Penally, 87-3/94-5 
Penitentialsi" ni-12 
periglor. See soul-frier.d 
Peter de~ Leia, Bishop of St. 

Davids, 67 
Phillimore, Mr. Egerton, xii, xx, 

62/71, 74-5, 77, 83, 95, 99, 

103-5, "4-iS 
Pictland, 74-5 
Picts, 54, 73-5, 79, 90, 109 
Pistyll Dewi, 67, 100 
Plumtner, Rev. Charles, 34, 87, 

104, 116 
Forth Clais, 66, 68-9, 71, 73, 77, 

90-1, 93-4, 102 
Porth Lisci, 93 
Porth Mawr, 3, 58, 63, 68-70, 

72, 87, 91-3, 101, 116, 118 
Porth Padrig, 68 
Porth Stinan, 67, 87, 91, 117- 


Poulinus, 53. See Paulinus 
Powys, xvi, 59, 80 
prid, prideil, 60-1 
prior, 17-19, 34-6, 102-3, 116 

Psalter of Rhygyvarch, xv 
Puplicius, St., 97-8 

Raglan, 8, 80, 82 

Rath of Boia, 90 

Ray, John, the naturalist, 72 

Rees, Rice, 60 

Rees, W. J., xi 

refectory, 18, 103 

Repton, 8, 80-2 

Rhain, King of Dyved, 53, 65 

Rheinwg, 53, 65, 95 

Rhoson, 67 

Rhygyvarch, x^xviii, 32, 60-2, 
64, 68, 71-3, 76, 78-82, 84-7, 
89> 95. ioi, 104-8, 111-15 

Rhys ab Gruffudd, xiv, 107 

Rhys ab Tewdwr, xvii-xviii, 65, 

94, "3 

Rhys, Sir John, 104-5, IJ 6 
Rock of Lepers, 51, 118 
Roman authority, 28 ; Britain, 

106 ; government, 76 ; learning, 

2 ; military roads, 108, 112; 

"station," 69, 72-3, 108, ill 
Rome, (19), 42 
Rosina.) 66-8 

sabbath, Saturday, 97 

Samson, St., viii, 47, 62, 73, 83, 

88-9, no 
sanctuary, 28, 113 
Sant, St., I, 3, 33, 58, 61, 70-1 
Saxons, ix, xvi, 37, 57, 79, 81 
Scandinavians of Dublin, ix-x; 

pirates, xv, (63), 96, in, 113-14 
Scolanus, St., 18, 103, 105 
Scotland, xv, 59, 68, 73-5 
Scutinus. See Scolanus 
Scythia, 54 

Seat of Patrick, 3, 68-9 
Seisyll, King of Ceredigion, 53, 


Seisyllwg, 53, 65 

Seith Seint Mathrtt, 62 

Solva, 102 

soul-friend, 37-8, (50), (52), 

(73), (75). n7-i8 
St. Harmons, ix, 94, lot 
St. Issells, 64, 88-9, 95 



St. Meugan's in Kernes, 59 

St. Twinnels, 88 

Stokes, Whitely, 43 

Sullen, Bishop of St. Davids, x, 

xiv, 115 
synod, 24-7, 39-40, 42, 107-13 

Teilo, St. See Eiludd 

Teivi, river, i, 26, 58-9, 61, 64-5, 

84, 108, 113, 116 
Terdi, 16 
Teulyddog, Toulidauc, St., 56, 

Thcfriaucus, King, 49 

Triphunus, King of Dyved, 4, 

(46), 71, 75-6, 88 
tunic, 24, 53, 107 
Twrcelyn, 73, 75 
ty, "house" (= monastery), 97 
Ty Ddewi, 79, 89 
Tyvai, Typhei, Tyfei, St., 56, 


Ulster, 77, 105 

Urban, Bishop of Llandaff, 53, 87 

Vallis Rosina, xv, 2-3, 9-10, (34), 
(48), 52, 65-6, 69-71, 79-8o, 

84, 86, 89-91, 93, 96, 105-6, 

Vetus Rubus, See Hen Vynyw 

Victory, Synod of, 27, 108, m- 


Vortigern, King, ix, 59, 98 
Voteporix, King of Dyved, 75~6 

Waterman, Watermen, viii, 21, 

57, 74, 95-6, 106-7 
well, wells, holy, 6, 12, 16-17, 51, 

74, 77, 87, 91-2, 100-2 
Welsh Chronicle, xv 
Welsh Life of St. David, xiii, 61, 

72, 77-8, 82, 85-6, 89-91, 101, 

103, 108, 113 

White, Dr. Newport, 63-4 
WhitesandBay. See Forth Mawr 
Wilfrid, Bishop of St. Davids, 

xviii, 115 

William the Conqueror, xvi xvii 
Williams, Prof. Hugh, 63, 107 


Williams, Prof. Ifor, viii, xiv 
writings, old, x, 32 
wyneb clawr. See flat face 

Ysvael, St., 9, 56, 88-9, 95 



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